Tanda Tangan Elektronik di Kalimantan Tengah

tanda tangan elektronik can provide evidence of origin, identity and status of electronic documents, transactions or elektronik messages. Signers can also use them to acknowledge informed consent.

In many countries, including the United States, komputerisasi signatures are considered legally binding in the same way as traditional handwritten document signatures.

How do digital signatures work?
Komputerisasi signatures are based on public key cryptography, also known as asymmetric cryptography. Using a public key algorithm, such as RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman), two keys are generated, creating a mathematically linked pair of keys, one private and one public.

Digital signatures work through public key cryptography\’s two mutually authenticating cryptographic keys. The individual who creates the digital signature uses a private key to encrypt signature-related data, while the only way to decrypt that data is with the signer\’s public key.

If the recipient can\’t open the document with the signer\’s public key, that\’s a sign there\’s a dilema with the document or the signature. This is how komputerisasi signatures are authenticated.

Komputerisasi signature technology requires all parties trust that the individual creating the signature has kept the private key secret. If someone else has access to the private signing key, that party could create fraudulent digital signatures in the name of the private key holder.

What are the benefits of digital signatures?
Security is the main benefit of digital signatures. Security capabilities embedded in digital signatures ensure a document is not altered and signatures are legitimate. Security features and methods used in komputerisasi signatures include the following:

Personal identification numbers (PINs), passwords and codes. Used to authenticate and verify a signer\’s identity and approve their signature. Surat, username and kata kunci are the most common methods used.
Asymmetric cryptography. Employs a public key algorithm that includes private and public key encryption and authentication.
Ceksum . Rangkaian panjang huruf dan angka yang mewakili jumlah digit yang benar dalam sepotong data komputerisasi, yang bisa diwujudkan perbandingan untuk mendeteksi kekeliruan atau perubahan. Sebuah checksum berbuat sebagai sidik jari data.
Pemeriksaan redundansi siklik ( CRC ). Kode pendeteksi kekeliruan dan fitur verifikasi yang dipakai dalam jaringan komputerisasi dan perangkat penyimpanan untuk mendeteksi perubahan pada data mentah.
Validasi otoritas akta ( CA ). CA menerbitkan pertanda tangan digital dan berperilaku sebagai pihak ketiga tepercaya dengan menerima, mengautentikasi, menerbitkan, dan memelihara akta digital . Penerapan CA menolong menghindari pembuatan akta komputerisasi palsu.
Validasi penyedia layanan kepercayaan (TSP). TSP adalah orang atau badan undang-undang yang melaksanakan validasi petunjuk tangan komputerisasi atas nama perusahaan dan menawarkan laporan validasi pedoman tangan.
Manfaat lain menerapkan petunjuk tangan komputerisasi ialah sebagai berikut:

Stempel waktu. Dengan memberikan data dan waktu pertanda tangan komputerisasi, timestamping berkhasiat saat waktunya betul-betul penting, seperti untuk perdagangan saham, penerbitan tiket lotere, dan pelaksanaan tata tertib.
Diterima secara global dan layak dengan regulasi. Standar infrastruktur kunci publik ( PKI ) memutuskan kunci yang dibuat oleh vendor diwujudkan dan disimpan dengan aman. Karena standar internasional, semakin banyak negara yang menerima petunjuk tangan komputerisasi sebagai sesuatu yang mengikat secara undang-undang.
Penghematan waktu. Pedoman tangan digital menyederhanakan pelaksanaan penandatanganan, penyimpanan, dan pertukaran dokumen lahiriah yang memakan waktu, memungkinkan bisnis mengakses dan menandatangani dokumen dengan cepat.
Penghematan tarif. Organisasi bisa menjadi tanpa kertas dan menghemat uang yang sebelumnya dihabiskan untuk sumber daya fisik dan waktu, personel, dan ruang kantor yang digunakan untuk mengelola dan mengangkutnya.
Dampak lingkungan yang positif. Mengurangi pengaplikasian kertas juga mengurangi limbah jasmani yang diwujudkan oleh kertas dan akibat negatif lingkungan dari pengangkutan dokumen kertas.
Ketertelusuran. Tanda tangan digital menjadikan jejak audit yang membuat pencatatan internal lebih gampang untuk bisnis. Dengan segala sesuatu yang direkam dan disimpan secara digital, ada lebih sedikit kans bagi penandatangan manual atau pemegang catatan untuk membikin kesalahan atau salah menaruhkan sesuatu.
Bagaimana sistem membuat pertanda tangan digital?
Untuk membuat pertanda tangan digital, perangkat lunak penandatanganan, seperti program surat elektronik, diaplikasikan untuk menyediakan hash satu arah dari data elektronik yang akan ditandatangani.

Hash merupakan string huruf dan angka dengan panjang tetap yang diwujudkan oleh suatu algoritma. Metode pribadi pembuat pertanda tangan digital kemudian dipakai untuk mengenkripsi hash. Hash terenkripsi — bersama dengan isu lain, seperti algoritma hashing — ialah tanda tangan komputerisasi.

Tanda Tangan Elektronik di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

The reason for encrypting the hash instead of the entire message or document is a hash function can convert an arbitrary input into a fixed-length value, which is usually much shorter. This saves time as hashing is much faster than signing.

The value of a hash is unique to the hashed data. Any change in the data, even a change in a single character, will result in a different value. This attribute enables others to use the signer\’s public key to decrypt the hash to validate the integrity of the data.

If the decrypted hash matches a second computed hash of the same data, it proves that the data hasn\’t changed since it was signed. If the two hashes don\’t match, the data has either been tampered with in some way and is compromised or the signature was created with a private key that doesn\’t correspond to the public key presented by the signer — an issue with authentication.

Digital kerja petunjuk tangan digital
A person creates a digital signature using a private key to encrypt the signature. At the same time, hash data is created and encrypted. The recipient uses the signer\’s public key to decrypt the signature.
A komputerisasi signature can be used with any kind of message, whether it is encrypted or not, simply so the receiver can be sure of the sender\’s identity and the message arrived intact. Komputerisasi signatures make it difficult for the signer to deny having signed something as the digital signature is unique to both the document and the signer and it binds them together. This property is called nonrepudiation.

Komputerisasi signatures are not to be confused with komputerisasi certificates. A digital certificate is an electronic document that contains the komputerisasi signature of the issuing CA. It binds together a public key with an identity and can be used to verify that a public key belongs to a particular person or entity.

Most modern surel programs support the use of digital signatures and komputerisasi certificates, making it easy to sign any outgoing emails and validate digitally signed incoming messages. Digital signatures are also used extensively to provide proof of authenticity, data integrity and nonrepudiation of communications and transactions conducted over the dunia online.

Classes and types of komputerisasi signatures
There are three different classes of digital signature certificates (DSCs):

Class 1. Cannot be used for legal business documents as they are validated based only on an e-mail ID and username. Class 1 signatures provide a basic jenjang of security and are used in environments with a low risk of data compromise.
Class 2. Often used for electronic filing (e-filing) of tax documents, including income tax returns and goods and services tax (GST) returns. Class 2 komputerisasi signatures authenticate a signer\’s identity against a pre-verified database. Class 2 komputerisasi signatures are used in environments where the risks and consequences of data compromise are moderate.
Class 3. The highest tingkatan of komputerisasi signatures, Class 3 signatures require a person or organization to present in front of a certifying authority to prove their identity before signing. Class 3 komputerisasi signatures are used for e-auctions, e-tendering, e-ticketing, court filings and in other environments where threats to data or the consequences of a security failure are high.
Uses for digital signatures
Industries use digital signature technology to streamline processes and improve document integrity. Industries that use digital signatures include the following:

Government. The U.S. Government Publishing Office (GPO) publishes electronic versions of budgets, public and private laws, and congressional bills with komputerisasi signatures. Komputerisasi signatures are used by governments worldwide for a variety of reasons, including processing tax returns, verifying business-to-government (B2G) transactions, ratifying laws and managing contracts. Most government entities must adhere to strict laws, regulations and standards when using komputerisasi signatures. Many governments and corporations also use smart cards to ID their citizens and employees. These are physical cards endowed with a digital signature that can be used to give the cardholder access to an institution\’s systems or physical buildings.
Healthcare. Komputerisasi signatures are used in the healthcare industry to improve the efficiency of treatment and administrative processes, to strengthen data security, for e-prescribing and hospital admissions. The use of digital signatures in healthcare must comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996.
Manufacturing. Manufacturing companies use digital signatures to speed up processes, including product design, quality assurance (QA), manufacturing enhancements, marketing and sales. The use of digital signatures in manufacturing is governed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Digital Manufacturing Certificate (DMC).
Financial services. The U.S. financial sector uses digital signatures for contracts, paperless banking, loan processing, insurance documentation, mortgages and more. This heavily regulated sector uses komputerisasi signatures with careful attention to the regulations and guidance put forth by the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (E-Sign Act), state Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (UETA) regulations, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) and the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC).
Cryptocurrencies. Digital signatures are also used in bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies to authenticate the blockchain. They are also used to manage transaction data associated with cryptocurrency and as a way for users to show ownership of currency or their participation in a transaction.
Why use PKI or PGP with komputerisasi signatures?
Digital signatures use the PKI standard and the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) encryption program because both reduce potential security issues that come with transmitting public keys. They validate that the sender\’s public key belongs to that individual and verify the sender\’s identity.

PKI is a framework for services that generate, distribute, control and account for public key certificates. PGP is a variation of the PKI standard that uses symmetric key and public key cryptography, but it differs in how it binds public keys to user identities. PKI uses CAs to validate and bind a user identity with a komputerisasi certificate, whereas PGP uses a website of trust. Users of PGP choose who they trust and which identities get vetted. PKI users defer to trusted CAs.

The effectiveness of a digital signature\’s security is dependent on the strength of the private key security. Without PKI or PGP, it\’s impossible to prove someone\’s identity or revoke a compromised key, and it\’s easier for malicious actors to impersonate people.

What\’s the difference between a komputerisasi signature and an electronic signature?
Though the two terms sound similar, komputerisasi signatures are different from electronic signatures. Komputerisasi signature is a technical term, defining the result of a cryptographic process or mathematical algorithm that can be used to authenticate a sequence of data. The term electronic signature — or e-signature — is a sah term that is defined legislatively.

For example, in the United States, the E-Sign Act, passed in 2000, defined e-signature as meaning \”an electronic sound, symbol or process, attached to or logically associated with a contract or other record and executed or adopted by a person with the intent to sign the record.\”

E-signatures are also defined in the Electronic Signatures Directive, which the European Union (EU) passed in 1999 and repealed in 2016. It regarded them as equivalent to physical signatures. This act was replaced with eIDAS (electronic identification authentication and trust services), which regulates e-signatures and transactions, and the embedding processes that ensure the safe conduct of online business.

This means that a komputerisasi signature — which can be expressed digitally in electronic form and associated with the representation of a record — can be a type of e-signature. More generally, though, an e-signature can be as simple as the signer\’s name being entered on a form on a webpage.

To be considered valid, e-signature schemes must include three things:

a way to verify the identity of the entity signing it;
a way to verify the signing entity intended to affirm the document being signed; and
a way to verify that the e-signature is associated with the signed document.
A digital signature can, on its own, fulfill these requirements to serve as an e-signature:

the public key of the komputerisasi signature is linked to the signing entity\’s electronic identification;
the komputerisasi signature can only be affixed by the holder of the public key\’s associated private key, which implies the entity intends to use it for the signature; and
the komputerisasi signature will only authenticate if the signed data, i.e., document or representation of a document, is unchanged — if a document is altered after being signed, the digital signature will fail to authenticate.
While authenticated digital signatures provide cryptographic proof a document was signed by the stated entity and the document has not been altered, not all e-signatures provide the same guarantees.

digital signature vs. electronic signature
Learn how digital signatures and electronic signatures compare.
Digital signature tools and vendors
Komputerisasi signature tools and services are commonly used in contract-heavy industries. For example, when freelance writers sign a contract, they can agree to word count and payment, using Adobe Sign to put their e-signature on the document.

Digital and e-signature service providers include the following:

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Adobe Sign is designed to provide secure, resmi e-signatures across all device types.
DocuSign standards-based services ensure e-signatures are compliant with existing regulations. Its services include Express Signature for basic global transactions and the EU Qualified Signature, which complies with EU standards.
GlobalSign provides a host of management, integration and automation tools to implement PKI across enterprise environments.
SignEasy offers an e-signing service of the same name to businesses and individuals, as well as providing application programming interfaces (APIs) for developers.
SignNow, which is part of the airSlate business cloud, provides an easy-to-use Portable Document (PDF) signing tool for businesses.
Vasco provides its eSignLive e-signature product as a cloud service and on premises.

Tanda Tangan Elektronik di Kalimantan Tengah

tanda tangan elektronik can provide evidence of origin, identity and status of electronic documents, transactions or elektronik messages. Signers can also use them to acknowledge informed consent.

In many countries, including the United States, komputerisasi signatures are considered legally binding in the same way as traditional handwritten document signatures.

How do komputerisasi signatures work?
Digital signatures are based on public key cryptography, also known as asymmetric cryptography. Using a public key algorithm, such as RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman), two keys are generated, creating a mathematically linked pair of keys, one private and one public.

Komputerisasi signatures work through public key cryptography\’s two mutually authenticating cryptographic keys. The individual who creates the komputerisasi signature uses a private key to encrypt signature-related data, while the only way to decrypt that data is with the signer\’s public key.

If the recipient can\’t open the document with the signer\’s public key, that\’s a sign there\’s a masalah with the document or the signature. This is how komputerisasi signatures are authenticated.

Digital signature technology requires all parties trust that the individual creating the signature has kept the private key secret. If someone else has access to the private signing key, that party could create fraudulent komputerisasi signatures in the name of the private key holder.

What are the benefits of digital signatures?
Security is the main benefit of komputerisasi signatures. Security capabilities embedded in komputerisasi signatures ensure a document is not altered and signatures are legitimate. Security features and methods used in digital signatures include the following:

Personal identification numbers (PINs), passwords and codes. Used to authenticate and verify a signer\’s identity and approve their signature. Surat, nama pengguna and password are the most common methods used.
Asymmetric cryptography. Employs a public key algorithm that includes private and public key encryption and authentication.
Ceksum . Rangkaian panjang huruf dan angka yang mewakili jumlah digit yang benar dalam sepotong data digital, yang dapat diciptakan perbandingan untuk mendeteksi kesalahan atau perubahan. Sebuah checksum bertingkah sebagai sidik jari data.
Pemeriksaan redundansi siklik ( CRC ). Kode pendeteksi kesalahan dan fitur verifikasi yang digunakan dalam jaringan digital dan perangkat penyimpanan untuk mendeteksi perubahan pada data mentah.
Validasi otoritas akta ( CA ). CA menerbitkan petunjuk tangan komputerisasi dan berbuat sebagai pihak ketiga tepercaya dengan menerima, mengautentikasi, menerbitkan, dan memelihara sertifikat komputerisasi . Penerapan CA menolong menghindari pembuatan sertifikat komputerisasi palsu.
Validasi penyedia layanan kepercayaan (TSP). TSP merupakan orang atau badan undang-undang yang menjalankan validasi pertanda tangan digital atas nama perusahaan dan menawarkan laporan validasi pertanda tangan.
Manfaat lain menggunakan petunjuk tangan komputerisasi merupakan sebagai berikut:

Stempel waktu. Dengan memberikan data dan waktu tanda tangan komputerisasi, timestamping berkhasiat dikala waktunya benar-benar penting, seperti untuk perdagangan saham, penerbitan karcis lotere, dan pengerjaan hukum.
Diterima secara global dan cocok dengan undang-undang. Standar infrastruktur kunci publik ( PKI ) mempertimbangkan kunci yang diciptakan oleh vendor diciptakan dan disimpan dengan aman. Karena standar internasional, kian banyak negara yang mendapatkan petunjuk tangan digital sebagai sesuatu yang mengikat secara tata tertib.
Penghematan waktu. Tanda tangan digital menyederhanakan cara kerja penandatanganan, penyimpanan, dan pertukaran dokumen jasmani yang memakan waktu, memungkinkan bisnis mengakses dan menandatangani dokumen dengan pesat.
Penghematan tarif. Organisasi bisa menjadi tanpa kertas dan menghemat uang yang sebelumnya dihabiskan untuk sumber kekuatan jasmani dan waktu, personel, dan ruang kantor yang diterapkan untuk mengelola dan mengangkutnya.
Imbas lingkungan yang positif. Mengurangi penggunaan kertas juga mengurangi limbah jasmani yang diciptakan oleh kertas dan dampak negatif lingkungan dari pengangkutan dokumen kertas.
Ketertelusuran. Tanda tangan digital menjadikan jejak audit yang membikin pencatatan internal lebih mudah untuk bisnis. Dengan semua sesuatu yang direkam dan disimpan secara komputerisasi, ada lebih sedikit kans bagi penandatangan manual atau pemegang catatan untuk membikin kekeliruan atau salah menaruhkan sesuatu.
Bagaimana cara membuat pertanda tangan komputerisasi?
Untuk membuat tanda tangan komputerisasi, perangkat lunak penandatanganan, seperti program surat elektronik, diterapkan untuk menyediakan hash satu arah dari data elektronik yang akan ditandatangani.

Hash merupakan string huruf dan angka dengan panjang tetap yang diwujudkan oleh suatu algoritma. Cara pribadi pembuat pedoman tangan digital kemudian dipakai untuk mengenkripsi hash. Hash terenkripsi — bersama dengan isu lain, seperti algoritma hashing — ialah tanda tangan komputerisasi.

Tanda Tangan Elektronik di Bangka Belitung Banten

The reason for encrypting the hash instead of the entire message or document is a hash function can convert an arbitrary input into a fixed-length value, which is usually much shorter. This saves time as hashing is much faster than signing.

The value of a hash is unique to the hashed data. Any change in the data, even a change in a single character, will result in a different value. This attribute enables others to use the signer\’s public key to decrypt the hash to validate the integrity of the data.

If the decrypted hash matches a second computed hash of the same data, it proves that the data hasn\’t changed since it was signed. If the two hashes don\’t match, the data has either been tampered with in some way and is compromised or the signature was created with a private key that doesn\’t correspond to the public key presented by the signer — an issue with authentication.

Komputerisasi kerja petunjuk tangan digital
A person creates a komputerisasi signature using a private key to encrypt the signature. At the same time, hash data is created and encrypted. The recipient uses the signer\’s public key to decrypt the signature.
A digital signature can be used with any kind of message, whether it is encrypted or not, simply so the receiver can be sure of the sender\’s identity and the message arrived intact. Komputerisasi signatures make it difficult for the signer to deny having signed something as the digital signature is unique to both the document and the signer and it binds them together. This property is called nonrepudiation.

Komputerisasi signatures are not to be confused with digital certificates. A digital certificate is an electronic document that contains the digital signature of the issuing CA. It binds together a public key with an identity and can be used to verify that a public key belongs to a particular person or entity.

Most modern e-mail programs support the use of komputerisasi signatures and komputerisasi certificates, making it easy to sign any outgoing emails and validate digitally signed incoming messages. Komputerisasi signatures are also used extensively to provide proof of authenticity, data integrity and nonrepudiation of communications and transactions conducted over the internet.

Classes and types of digital signatures
There are three different classes of digital signature certificates (DSCs):

Class 1. Cannot be used for sah business documents as they are validated based only on an email ID and nama akun. Class 1 signatures provide a basic tingkatan of security and are used in environments with a low risk of data compromise.
Class 2. Often used for electronic filing (e-filing) of tax documents, including income tax returns and goods and services tax (GST) returns. Class 2 komputerisasi signatures authenticate a signer\’s identity against a pre-verified database. Class 2 komputerisasi signatures are used in environments where the risks and consequences of data compromise are moderate.
Class 3. The highest tahapan of digital signatures, Class 3 signatures require a person or organization to present in front of a certifying authority to prove their identity before signing. Class 3 digital signatures are used for e-auctions, e-tendering, e-ticketing, court filings and in other environments where threats to data or the consequences of a security failure are high.
Uses for digital signatures
Industries use digital signature technology to streamline processes and improve document integrity. Industries that use digital signatures include the following:

Government. The U.S. Government Publishing Office (GPO) publishes electronic versions of budgets, public and private laws, and congressional bills with digital signatures. Komputerisasi signatures are used by governments worldwide for a variety of reasons, including processing tax returns, verifying business-to-government (B2G) transactions, ratifying laws and managing contracts. Most government entities must adhere to strict laws, regulations and standards when using digital signatures. Many governments and corporations also use smart cards to ID their citizens and employees. These are physical cards endowed with a digital signature that can be used to give the cardholder access to an institution\’s systems or physical buildings.
Healthcare. Komputerisasi signatures are used in the healthcare industry to improve the efficiency of treatment and administrative processes, to strengthen data security, for e-prescribing and hospital admissions. The use of digital signatures in healthcare must comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996.
Manufacturing. Manufacturing companies use digital signatures to speed up processes, including product design, quality assurance (QA), manufacturing enhancements, marketing and sales. The use of komputerisasi signatures in manufacturing is governed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Komputerisasi Manufacturing Certificate (DMC).
Financial services. The U.S. financial sector uses komputerisasi signatures for contracts, paperless banking, loan processing, insurance documentation, mortgages and more. This heavily regulated sector uses digital signatures with careful attention to the regulations and guidance put forth by the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (E-Sign Act), state Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (UETA) regulations, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) and the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC).
Cryptocurrencies. Digital signatures are also used in bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies to authenticate the blockchain. They are also used to manage transaction data associated with cryptocurrency and as a way for users to show ownership of currency or their participation in a transaction.
Why use PKI or PGP with komputerisasi signatures?
Komputerisasi signatures use the PKI standard and the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) encryption program because both reduce potential security issues that come with transmitting public keys. They validate that the sender\’s public key belongs to that individual and verify the sender\’s identity.

PKI is a framework for services that generate, distribute, control and account for public key certificates. PGP is a variation of the PKI standard that uses symmetric key and public key cryptography, but it differs in how it binds public keys to user identities. PKI uses CAs to validate and bind a user identity with a komputerisasi certificate, whereas PGP uses a web of trust. Users of PGP choose who they trust and which identities get vetted. PKI users defer to trusted CAs.

The effectiveness of a komputerisasi signature\’s security is dependent on the strength of the private key security. Without PKI or PGP, it\’s impossible to prove someone\’s identity or revoke a compromised key, and it\’s easier for malicious actors to impersonate people.

What\’s the difference between a digital signature and an electronic signature?
Though the two terms sound similar, komputerisasi signatures are different from electronic signatures. Komputerisasi signature is a technical term, defining the result of a cryptographic process or mathematical algorithm that can be used to authenticate a sequence of data. The term electronic signature — or e-signature — is a resmi term that is defined legislatively.

For example, in the United States, the E-Sign Act, passed in 2000, defined e-signature as meaning \”an electronic sound, symbol or process, attached to or logically associated with a contract or other record and executed or adopted by a person with the intent to sign the record.\”

E-signatures are also defined in the Electronic Signatures Directive, which the European Union (EU) passed in 1999 and repealed in 2016. It regarded them as equivalent to physical signatures. This act was replaced with eIDAS (electronic identification authentication and trust services), which regulates e-signatures and transactions, and the embedding processes that ensure the safe conduct of online business.

This means that a komputerisasi signature — which can be expressed digitally in electronic form and associated with the representation of a record — can be a type of e-signature. More generally, though, an e-signature can be as simple as the signer\’s name being entered on a form on a webpage.

To be considered valid, e-signature schemes must include three things:

a way to verify the identity of the entity signing it;
a way to verify the signing entity intended to affirm the document being signed; and
a way to verify that the e-signature is associated with the signed document.
A komputerisasi signature can, on its own, fulfill these requirements to serve as an e-signature:

the public key of the komputerisasi signature is linked to the signing entity\’s electronic identification;
the digital signature can only be affixed by the holder of the public key\’s associated private key, which implies the entity intends to use it for the signature; and
the komputerisasi signature will only authenticate if the signed data, i.e., document or representation of a document, is unchanged — if a document is altered after being signed, the komputerisasi signature will fail to authenticate.
While authenticated komputerisasi signatures provide cryptographic proof a document was signed by the stated entity and the document has not been altered, not all e-signatures provide the same guarantees.

digital signature vs. electronic signature
Learn how digital signatures and electronic signatures compare.
Komputerisasi signature tools and vendors
Komputerisasi signature tools and services are commonly used in contract-heavy industries. For example, when pekerja paruh waktu writers sign a contract, they can agree to word count and payment, using Adobe Sign to put their e-signature on the document.

Komputerisasi and e-signature service providers include the following:

< a href= 'https://enkripa.id/tanda-tangan-elektronik/'>tanda tangan digital di Bengkulu

Adobe Sign is designed to provide secure, legal e-signatures across all device types.
DocuSign standards-based services ensure e-signatures are compliant with existing regulations. Its services include Express Signature for basic global transactions and the EU Qualified Signature, which complies with EU standards.
GlobalSign provides a host of management, integration and automation tools to implement PKI across enterprise environments.
SignEasy offers an e-signing service of the same name to businesses and individuals, as well as providing application programming interfaces (APIs) for developers.
SignNow, which is part of the airSlate business cloud, provides an easy-to-use Portable Document (PDF) signing tool for businesses.
Vasco provides its eSignLive e-signature product as a cloud service and on premises.

Tanda Tangan Elektronik di Kalimantan Tengah

tanda tangan elektronik can provide evidence of origin, identity and status of electronic documents, transactions or elektronik messages. Signers can also use them to acknowledge informed consent.

In many countries, including the United States, komputerisasi signatures are considered legally binding in the same way as traditional handwritten document signatures.

How do digital signatures work?
Komputerisasi signatures are based on public key cryptography, also known as asymmetric cryptography. Using a public key algorithm, such as RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman), two keys are generated, creating a mathematically linked pair of keys, one private and one public.

Komputerisasi signatures work through public key cryptography\’s two mutually authenticating cryptographic keys. The individual who creates the digital signature uses a private key to encrypt signature-related data, while the only way to decrypt that data is with the signer\’s public key.

If the recipient can\’t open the document with the signer\’s public key, that\’s a sign there\’s a dilema with the document or the signature. This is how digital signatures are authenticated.

Digital signature technology requires all parties trust that the individual creating the signature has kept the private key secret. If someone else has access to the private signing key, that party could create fraudulent komputerisasi signatures in the name of the private key holder.

What are the benefits of digital signatures?
Security is the main benefit of komputerisasi signatures. Security capabilities embedded in komputerisasi signatures ensure a document is not altered and signatures are legitimate. Security features and methods used in digital signatures include the following:

Personal identification numbers (PINs), passwords and codes. Used to authenticate and verify a signer\’s identity and approve their signature. Email, nama pengguna and kata kunci are the most common methods used.
Asymmetric cryptography. Employs a public key algorithm that includes private and public key encryption and authentication.
Ceksum . Rangkaian panjang huruf dan angka yang mewakili jumlah digit yang benar dalam sepotong data komputerisasi, yang dapat dihasilkan perbandingan untuk mendeteksi kekeliruan atau perubahan. Sebuah checksum bertindak sebagai sidik jari data.
Pemeriksaan redundansi siklik ( CRC ). Kode pendeteksi kekeliruan dan fitur verifikasi yang diterapkan dalam jaringan digital dan perangkat penyimpanan untuk mendeteksi perubahan pada data mentah.
Validasi otoritas sertifikat ( CA ). CA menerbitkan petunjuk tangan komputerisasi dan berbuat sebagai pihak ketiga tepercaya dengan mendapatkan, mengautentikasi, menerbitkan, dan memelihara akta digital . Pengaplikasian CA menolong menghindari pembuatan akta digital palsu.
Validasi penyedia layanan kepercayaan (TSP). TSP merupakan orang atau badan undang-undang yang mengerjakan validasi pedoman tangan komputerisasi atas nama perusahaan dan menawarkan laporan validasi tanda tangan.
Manfaat lain menerapkan tanda tangan digital adalah sebagai berikut:

Stempel waktu. Dengan memberikan data dan waktu petunjuk tangan digital, timestamping berguna dikala waktunya amat penting, seperti untuk perdagangan saham, penerbitan karcis lotere, dan progres tata tertib.
Diterima secara global dan cocok dengan aturan. Standar infrastruktur kunci publik ( PKI ) memutuskan kunci yang dihasilkan oleh vendor dijadikan dan disimpan dengan aman. Karena standar internasional, kian banyak negara yang menerima pertanda tangan digital sebagai sesuatu yang mengikat secara hukum.
Penghematan waktu. Pertanda tangan komputerisasi menyederhanakan progres penandatanganan, penyimpanan, dan pertukaran dokumen jasmaniah yang memakan waktu, memungkinkan bisnis mengakses dan menandatangani dokumen dengan pesat.
Penghematan biaya. Organisasi bisa menjadi tanpa kertas dan menghemat uang yang sebelumnya dihabiskan untuk sumber kekuatan lahiriah dan waktu, personel, dan ruang kantor yang digunakan untuk mengelola dan mengangkutnya.
Pengaruh lingkungan yang positif. Mengurangi penerapan kertas juga mengurangi limbah fisik yang diciptakan oleh kertas dan dampak negatif lingkungan dari pengangkutan dokumen kertas.
Ketertelusuran. Pertanda tangan digital menciptakan jejak audit yang membikin pencatatan internal lebih gampang untuk bisnis. Dengan semua sesuatu yang direkam dan disimpan secara digital, ada lebih sedikit kans bagi penandatangan manual atau pemegang catatan untuk membikin kekeliruan atau salah menaruhkan sesuatu.
Bagaimana metode membuat pedoman tangan komputerisasi?
Untuk membikin pedoman tangan komputerisasi, perangkat lunak penandatanganan, seperti program surat elektronik, diterapkan untuk menyediakan hash satu arah dari data elektronik yang akan ditandatangani.

Hash adalah string huruf dan angka dengan panjang tetap yang diciptakan oleh suatu algoritma. Cara pribadi pembuat petunjuk tangan digital kemudian dipakai untuk mengenkripsi hash. Hash terenkripsi — bersama dengan kabar lain, seperti algoritma hashing — yaitu pertanda tangan komputerisasi.

Tanda Tangan Elektronik di Riau

The reason for encrypting the hash instead of the entire message or document is a hash function can convert an arbitrary input into a fixed-length value, which is usually much shorter. This saves time as hashing is much faster than signing.

The value of a hash is unique to the hashed data. Any change in the data, even a change in a single character, will result in a different value. This attribute enables others to use the signer\’s public key to decrypt the hash to validate the integrity of the data.

If the decrypted hash matches a second computed hash of the same data, it proves that the data hasn\’t changed since it was signed. If the two hashes don\’t match, the data has either been tampered with in some way and is compromised or the signature was created with a private key that doesn\’t correspond to the public key presented by the signer — an issue with authentication.

Digital kerja tanda tangan komputerisasi
A person creates a digital signature using a private key to encrypt the signature. At the same time, hash data is created and encrypted. The recipient uses the signer\’s public key to decrypt the signature.
A digital signature can be used with any kind of message, whether it is encrypted or not, simply so the receiver can be sure of the sender\’s identity and the message arrived intact. Komputerisasi signatures make it difficult for the signer to deny having signed something as the digital signature is unique to both the document and the signer and it binds them together. This property is called nonrepudiation.

Digital signatures are not to be confused with digital certificates. A komputerisasi certificate is an electronic document that contains the komputerisasi signature of the issuing CA. It binds together a public key with an identity and can be used to verify that a public key belongs to a particular person or entity.

Most modern surel programs support the use of digital signatures and komputerisasi certificates, making it easy to sign any outgoing emails and validate digitally signed incoming messages. Digital signatures are also used extensively to provide proof of authenticity, data integrity and nonrepudiation of communications and transactions conducted over the dunia online.

Classes and types of komputerisasi signatures
There are three different classes of komputerisasi signature certificates (DSCs):

Class 1. Cannot be used for resmi business documents as they are validated based only on an email ID and nama akun. Class 1 signatures provide a basic level of security and are used in environments with a low risk of data compromise.
Class 2. Often used for electronic filing (e-filing) of tax documents, including income tax returns and goods and services tax (GST) returns. Class 2 digital signatures authenticate a signer\’s identity against a pre-verified database. Class 2 komputerisasi signatures are used in environments where the risks and consequences of data compromise are moderate.
Class 3. The highest level of komputerisasi signatures, Class 3 signatures require a person or organization to present in front of a certifying authority to prove their identity before signing. Class 3 komputerisasi signatures are used for e-auctions, e-tendering, e-ticketing, court filings and in other environments where threats to data or the consequences of a security failure are high.
Uses for digital signatures
Industries use komputerisasi signature technology to streamline processes and improve document integrity. Industries that use komputerisasi signatures include the following:

Government. The U.S. Government Publishing Office (GPO) publishes electronic versions of budgets, public and private laws, and congressional bills with digital signatures. Digital signatures are used by governments worldwide for a variety of reasons, including processing tax returns, verifying business-to-government (B2G) transactions, ratifying laws and managing contracts. Most government entities must adhere to strict laws, regulations and standards when using digital signatures. Many governments and corporations also use smart cards to ID their citizens and employees. These are physical cards endowed with a digital signature that can be used to give the cardholder access to an institution\’s systems or physical buildings.
Healthcare. Komputerisasi signatures are used in the healthcare industry to improve the efficiency of treatment and administrative processes, to strengthen data security, for e-prescribing and hospital admissions. The use of digital signatures in healthcare must comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996.
Manufacturing. Manufacturing companies use komputerisasi signatures to speed up processes, including product design, quality assurance (QA), manufacturing enhancements, marketing and sales. The use of digital signatures in manufacturing is governed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Komputerisasi Manufacturing Certificate (DMC).
Financial services. The U.S. financial sector uses komputerisasi signatures for contracts, paperless banking, loan processing, insurance documentation, mortgages and more. This heavily regulated sector uses digital signatures with careful attention to the regulations and guidance put forth by the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (E-Sign Act), state Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (UETA) regulations, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) and the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC).
Cryptocurrencies. Komputerisasi signatures are also used in bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies to authenticate the blockchain. They are also used to manage transaction data associated with cryptocurrency and as a way for users to show ownership of currency or their participation in a transaction.
Why use PKI or PGP with komputerisasi signatures?
Digital signatures use the PKI standard and the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) encryption program because both reduce potential security issues that come with transmitting public keys. They validate that the sender\’s public key belongs to that individual and verify the sender\’s identity.

PKI is a framework for services that generate, distribute, control and account for public key certificates. PGP is a variation of the PKI standard that uses symmetric key and public key cryptography, but it differs in how it binds public keys to user identities. PKI uses CAs to validate and bind a user identity with a komputerisasi certificate, whereas PGP uses a website of trust. Users of PGP choose who they trust and which identities get vetted. PKI users defer to trusted CAs.

The effectiveness of a komputerisasi signature\’s security is dependent on the strength of the private key security. Without PKI or PGP, it\’s impossible to prove someone\’s identity or revoke a compromised key, and it\’s easier for malicious actors to impersonate people.

What\’s the difference between a komputerisasi signature and an electronic signature?
Though the two terms sound similar, digital signatures are different from electronic signatures. Komputerisasi signature is a technical term, defining the result of a cryptographic process or mathematical algorithm that can be used to authenticate a sequence of data. The term electronic signature — or e-signature — is a resmi term that is defined legislatively.

For example, in the United States, the E-Sign Act, passed in 2000, defined e-signature as meaning \”an electronic sound, symbol or process, attached to or logically associated with a contract or other record and executed or adopted by a person with the intent to sign the record.\”

E-signatures are also defined in the Electronic Signatures Directive, which the European Union (EU) passed in 1999 and repealed in 2016. It regarded them as equivalent to physical signatures. This act was replaced with eIDAS (electronic identification authentication and trust services), which regulates e-signatures and transactions, and the embedding processes that ensure the safe conduct of online business.

This means that a komputerisasi signature — which can be expressed digitally in electronic form and associated with the representation of a record — can be a type of e-signature. More generally, though, an e-signature can be as simple as the signer\’s name being entered on a form on a webpage.

To be considered valid, e-signature schemes must include three things:

a way to verify the identity of the entity signing it;
a way to verify the signing entity intended to affirm the document being signed; and
a way to verify that the e-signature is associated with the signed document.
A komputerisasi signature can, on its own, fulfill these requirements to serve as an e-signature:

the public key of the digital signature is linked to the signing entity\’s electronic identification;
the digital signature can only be affixed by the holder of the public key\’s associated private key, which implies the entity intends to use it for the signature; and
the komputerisasi signature will only authenticate if the signed data, i.e., document or representation of a document, is unchanged — if a document is altered after being signed, the komputerisasi signature will fail to authenticate.
While authenticated digital signatures provide cryptographic proof a document was signed by the stated entity and the document has not been altered, not all e-signatures provide the same guarantees.

komputerisasi signature vs. electronic signature
Learn how komputerisasi signatures and electronic signatures compare.
Digital signature tools and vendors
Digital signature tools and services are commonly used in contract-heavy industries. For example, when pekerja paruh waktu writers sign a contract, they can agree to word count and payment, using Adobe Sign to put their e-signature on the document.

Komputerisasi and e-signature service providers include the following:

< a href= 'https://enkripa.id/tanda-tangan-elektronik/'>tanda tangan elektronik terserfitikasi di Nusa Tenggara Timur

Adobe Sign is designed to provide secure, resmi e-signatures across all device types.
DocuSign standards-based services ensure e-signatures are compliant with existing regulations. Its services include Express Signature for basic global transactions and the EU Qualified Signature, which complies with EU standards.
GlobalSign provides a host of management, integration and automation tools to implement PKI across enterprise environments.
SignEasy offers an e-signing service of the same name to businesses and individuals, as well as providing application programming interfaces (APIs) for developers.
SignNow, which is part of the airSlate business cloud, provides an easy-to-use Portable Document (PDF) signing tool for businesses.
Vasco provides its eSignLive e-signature product as a cloud service and on premises.

Tanda Tangan Elektronik di Riau

tanda tangan Digital can provide evidence of origin, identity and status of electronic documents, transactions or elektronik messages. Signers can also use them to acknowledge informed consent.

In many countries, including the United States, komputerisasi signatures are considered legally binding in the same way as traditional handwritten document signatures.

How do komputerisasi signatures work?
Digital signatures are based on public key cryptography, also known as asymmetric cryptography. Using a public key algorithm, such as RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman), two keys are generated, creating a mathematically linked pair of keys, one private and one public.

Digital signatures work through public key cryptography\’s two mutually authenticating cryptographic keys. The individual who creates the komputerisasi signature uses a private key to encrypt signature-related data, while the only way to decrypt that data is with the signer\’s public key.

If the recipient can\’t open the document with the signer\’s public key, that\’s a sign there\’s a masalah with the document or the signature. This is how digital signatures are authenticated.

Digital signature technology requires all parties trust that the individual creating the signature has kept the private key secret. If someone else has access to the private signing key, that party could create fraudulent digital signatures in the name of the private key holder.

What are the benefits of komputerisasi signatures?
Security is the main benefit of komputerisasi signatures. Security capabilities embedded in komputerisasi signatures ensure a document is not altered and signatures are legitimate. Security features and methods used in digital signatures include the following:

Personal identification numbers (PINs), passwords and codes. Used to authenticate and verify a signer\’s identity and approve their signature. Email, username and kata sandi are the most common methods used.
Asymmetric cryptography. Employs a public key algorithm that includes private and public key encryption and authentication.
Ceksum . Rangkaian panjang huruf dan angka yang mewakili jumlah digit yang benar dalam sepotong data komputerisasi, yang dapat diwujudkan perbandingan untuk mendeteksi kesalahan atau perubahan. Sebuah checksum bertindak sebagai sidik jari data.
Pemeriksaan redundansi siklik ( CRC ). Kode pendeteksi kesalahan dan fitur verifikasi yang diaplikasikan dalam jaringan digital dan perangkat penyimpanan untuk mendeteksi perubahan pada data mentah.
Validasi otoritas akta ( CA ). CA menerbitkan pedoman tangan digital dan bertindak sebagai pihak ketiga tepercaya dengan mendapatkan, mengautentikasi, menerbitkan, dan memelihara akta komputerisasi . Penggunaan CA membantu menghindari pembuatan sertifikat digital palsu.
Validasi penyedia layanan kepercayaan (TSP). TSP yaitu orang atau badan aturan yang mengerjakan validasi petunjuk tangan digital atas nama perusahaan dan menawarkan laporan validasi tanda tangan.
Manfaat lain menggunakan petunjuk tangan komputerisasi adalah sebagai berikut:

Stempel waktu. Dengan memberikan data dan waktu pedoman tangan digital, timestamping bermanfaat saat waktunya sungguh-sungguh penting, seperti untuk perdagangan saham, penerbitan karcis lotere, dan progres undang-undang.
Diterima secara global dan pantas dengan hukum. Standar infrastruktur kunci publik ( PKI ) memutuskan kunci yang dihasilkan oleh vendor diwujudkan dan disimpan dengan aman. Karena standar internasional, semakin banyak negara yang mendapatkan tanda tangan digital sebagai sesuatu yang mengikat secara peraturan.
Penghematan waktu. Petunjuk tangan komputerisasi menyederhanakan pelaksanaan penandatanganan, penyimpanan, dan pertukaran dokumen lahiriah yang memakan waktu, memungkinkan bisnis mengakses dan menandatangani dokumen dengan pesat.
Penghematan biaya. Organisasi bisa menjadi tanpa kertas dan menghemat uang yang sebelumnya dihabiskan untuk sumber daya lahiriah dan waktu, personel, dan ruang kantor yang diterapkan untuk mengelola dan mengangkutnya.
Imbas lingkungan yang positif. Mengurangi pengaplikasian kertas juga mengurangi limbah lahiriah yang dijadikan oleh kertas dan akibat negatif lingkungan dari pengangkutan dokumen kertas.
Ketertelusuran. Pedoman tangan digital menghasilkan jejak audit yang membuat pencatatan internal lebih gampang untuk bisnis. Dengan semua sesuatu yang direkam dan disimpan secara digital, ada lebih sedikit peluang bagi penandatangan manual atau pemegang catatan untuk membuat kesalahan atau salah menaruhkan sesuatu.
Bagaimana metode membuat petunjuk tangan digital?
Untuk membuat pedoman tangan digital, perangkat lunak penandatanganan, seperti program surel, diaplikasikan untuk menyediakan hash satu arah dari data elektronik yang akan ditandatangani.

Hash yakni string huruf dan angka dengan panjang konsisten yang diciptakan oleh suatu algoritma. Sistem pribadi pembuat pertanda tangan komputerisasi kemudian diterapkan untuk mengenkripsi hash. Hash terenkripsi — bersama dengan kabar lain, seperti algoritma hashing — yakni pertanda tangan komputerisasi.

Tanda Tangan Elektronik di Sulawesi Tengah

The reason for encrypting the hash instead of the entire message or document is a hash function can convert an arbitrary input into a fixed-length value, which is usually much shorter. This saves time as hashing is much faster than signing.

The value of a hash is unique to the hashed data. Any change in the data, even a change in a single character, will result in a different value. This attribute enables others to use the signer\’s public key to decrypt the hash to validate the integrity of the data.

If the decrypted hash matches a second computed hash of the same data, it proves that the data hasn\’t changed since it was signed. If the two hashes don\’t match, the data has either been tampered with in some way and is compromised or the signature was created with a private key that doesn\’t correspond to the public key presented by the signer — an issue with authentication.

Digital kerja pedoman tangan digital
A person creates a komputerisasi signature using a private key to encrypt the signature. At the same time, hash data is created and encrypted. The recipient uses the signer\’s public key to decrypt the signature.
A komputerisasi signature can be used with any kind of message, whether it is encrypted or not, simply so the receiver can be sure of the sender\’s identity and the message arrived intact. Digital signatures make it difficult for the signer to deny having signed something as the digital signature is unique to both the document and the signer and it binds them together. This property is called nonrepudiation.

Digital signatures are not to be confused with komputerisasi certificates. A digital certificate is an electronic document that contains the komputerisasi signature of the issuing CA. It binds together a public key with an identity and can be used to verify that a public key belongs to a particular person or entity.

Most modern surel programs support the use of digital signatures and digital certificates, making it easy to sign any outgoing emails and validate digitally signed incoming messages. Komputerisasi signatures are also used extensively to provide proof of authenticity, data integrity and nonrepudiation of communications and transactions conducted over the dunia online.

Classes and types of komputerisasi signatures
There are three different classes of komputerisasi signature certificates (DSCs):

Class 1. Cannot be used for sah business documents as they are validated based only on an email ID and nama akun. Class 1 signatures provide a basic level of security and are used in environments with a low risk of data compromise.
Class 2. Often used for electronic filing (e-filing) of tax documents, including income tax returns and goods and services tax (GST) returns. Class 2 komputerisasi signatures authenticate a signer\’s identity against a pre-verified database. Class 2 komputerisasi signatures are used in environments where the risks and consequences of data compromise are moderate.
Class 3. The highest level of digital signatures, Class 3 signatures require a person or organization to present in front of a certifying authority to prove their identity before signing. Class 3 komputerisasi signatures are used for e-auctions, e-tendering, e-ticketing, court filings and in other environments where threats to data or the consequences of a security failure are high.
Uses for komputerisasi signatures
Industries use komputerisasi signature technology to streamline processes and improve document integrity. Industries that use digital signatures include the following:

Government. The U.S. Government Publishing Office (GPO) publishes electronic versions of budgets, public and private laws, and congressional bills with komputerisasi signatures. Digital signatures are used by governments worldwide for a variety of reasons, including processing tax returns, verifying business-to-government (B2G) transactions, ratifying laws and managing contracts. Most government entities must adhere to strict laws, regulations and standards when using komputerisasi signatures. Many governments and corporations also use smart cards to ID their citizens and employees. These are physical cards endowed with a digital signature that can be used to give the cardholder access to an institution\’s systems or physical buildings.
Healthcare. Digital signatures are used in the healthcare industry to improve the efficiency of treatment and administrative processes, to strengthen data security, for e-prescribing and hospital admissions. The use of digital signatures in healthcare must comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996.
Manufacturing. Manufacturing companies use digital signatures to speed up processes, including product design, quality assurance (QA), manufacturing enhancements, marketing and sales. The use of komputerisasi signatures in manufacturing is governed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Digital Manufacturing Certificate (DMC).
Financial services. The U.S. financial sector uses komputerisasi signatures for contracts, paperless banking, loan processing, insurance documentation, mortgages and more. This heavily regulated sector uses digital signatures with careful attention to the regulations and guidance put forth by the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (E-Sign Act), state Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (UETA) regulations, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) and the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC).
Cryptocurrencies. Komputerisasi signatures are also used in bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies to authenticate the blockchain. They are also used to manage transaction data associated with cryptocurrency and as a way for users to show ownership of currency or their participation in a transaction.
Why use PKI or PGP with komputerisasi signatures?
Digital signatures use the PKI standard and the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) encryption program because both reduce potential security issues that come with transmitting public keys. They validate that the sender\’s public key belongs to that individual and verify the sender\’s identity.

PKI is a framework for services that generate, distribute, control and account for public key certificates. PGP is a variation of the PKI standard that uses symmetric key and public key cryptography, but it differs in how it binds public keys to user identities. PKI uses CAs to validate and bind a user identity with a digital certificate, whereas PGP uses a web of trust. Users of PGP choose who they trust and which identities get vetted. PKI users defer to trusted CAs.

The effectiveness of a digital signature\’s security is dependent on the strength of the private key security. Without PKI or PGP, it\’s impossible to prove someone\’s identity or revoke a compromised key, and it\’s easier for malicious actors to impersonate people.

What\’s the difference between a digital signature and an electronic signature?
Though the two terms sound similar, digital signatures are different from electronic signatures. Digital signature is a technical term, defining the result of a cryptographic process or mathematical algorithm that can be used to authenticate a sequence of data. The term electronic signature — or e-signature — is a sah term that is defined legislatively.

For example, in the United States, the E-Sign Act, passed in 2000, defined e-signature as meaning \”an electronic sound, symbol or process, attached to or logically associated with a contract or other record and executed or adopted by a person with the intent to sign the record.\”

E-signatures are also defined in the Electronic Signatures Directive, which the European Union (EU) passed in 1999 and repealed in 2016. It regarded them as equivalent to physical signatures. This act was replaced with eIDAS (electronic identification authentication and trust services), which regulates e-signatures and transactions, and the embedding processes that ensure the safe conduct of online business.

This means that a komputerisasi signature — which can be expressed digitally in electronic form and associated with the representation of a record — can be a type of e-signature. More generally, though, an e-signature can be as simple as the signer\’s name being entered on a form on a webpage.

To be considered valid, e-signature schemes must include three things:

a way to verify the identity of the entity signing it;
a way to verify the signing entity intended to affirm the document being signed; and
a way to verify that the e-signature is associated with the signed document.
A komputerisasi signature can, on its own, fulfill these requirements to serve as an e-signature:

the public key of the digital signature is linked to the signing entity\’s electronic identification;
the digital signature can only be affixed by the holder of the public key\’s associated private key, which implies the entity intends to use it for the signature; and
the digital signature will only authenticate if the signed data, i.e., document or representation of a document, is unchanged — if a document is altered after being signed, the komputerisasi signature will fail to authenticate.
While authenticated komputerisasi signatures provide cryptographic proof a document was signed by the stated entity and the document has not been altered, not all e-signatures provide the same guarantees.

digital signature vs. electronic signature
Learn how komputerisasi signatures and electronic signatures compare.
Digital signature tools and vendors
Digital signature tools and services are commonly used in contract-heavy industries. For example, when pekerja paruh waktu writers sign a contract, they can agree to word count and payment, using Adobe Sign to put their e-signature on the document.

Digital and e-signature service providers include the following:

< a href= 'https://enkripa.id/tanda-tangan-elektronik/'>tanda tangan digital di Riau

Adobe Sign is designed to provide secure, resmi e-signatures across all device types.
DocuSign standards-based services ensure e-signatures are compliant with existing regulations. Its services include Express Signature for basic global transactions and the EU Qualified Signature, which complies with EU standards.
GlobalSign provides a host of management, integration and automation tools to implement PKI across enterprise environments.
SignEasy offers an e-signing service of the same name to businesses and individuals, as well as providing application programming interfaces (APIs) for developers.
SignNow, which is part of the airSlate business cloud, provides an easy-to-use Portable Document (PDF) signing tool for businesses.
Vasco provides its eSignLive e-signature product as a cloud service and on premises.

Tanda Tangan Elektronik di Nusa Tenggara Timur

tanda tangan elektronik can provide evidence of origin, identity and status of electronic documents, transactions or Digital messages. Signers can also use them to acknowledge informed consent.

In many countries, including the United States, digital signatures are considered legally binding in the same way as traditional handwritten document signatures.

How do komputerisasi signatures work?
Digital signatures are based on public key cryptography, also known as asymmetric cryptography. Using a public key algorithm, such as RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman), two keys are generated, creating a mathematically linked pair of keys, one private and one public.

Komputerisasi signatures work through public key cryptography\’s two mutually authenticating cryptographic keys. The individual who creates the komputerisasi signature uses a private key to encrypt signature-related data, while the only way to decrypt that data is with the signer\’s public key.

If the recipient can\’t open the document with the signer\’s public key, that\’s a sign there\’s a persoalan with the document or the signature. This is how komputerisasi signatures are authenticated.

Komputerisasi signature technology requires all parties trust that the individual creating the signature has kept the private key secret. If someone else has access to the private signing key, that party could create fraudulent digital signatures in the name of the private key holder.

What are the benefits of digital signatures?
Security is the main benefit of digital signatures. Security capabilities embedded in komputerisasi signatures ensure a document is not altered and signatures are legitimate. Security features and methods used in komputerisasi signatures include the following:

Personal identification numbers (PINs), passwords and codes. Used to authenticate and verify a signer\’s identity and approve their signature. Email, username and kata sandi are the most common methods used.
Asymmetric cryptography. Employs a public key algorithm that includes private and public key encryption and authentication.
Ceksum . Rangkaian panjang huruf dan angka yang mewakili jumlah digit yang benar dalam sepotong data digital, yang bisa dijadikan perbandingan untuk mendeteksi kesalahan atau perubahan. Sebuah checksum bertingkah sebagai sidik jari data.
Pemeriksaan redundansi siklik ( CRC ). Kode pendeteksi kekeliruan dan fitur verifikasi yang digunakan dalam jaringan digital dan perangkat penyimpanan untuk mendeteksi perubahan pada data mentah.
Validasi otoritas akta ( CA ). CA menerbitkan pertanda tangan komputerisasi dan bertingkah sebagai pihak ketiga tepercaya dengan menerima, mengautentikasi, menerbitkan, dan memelihara sertifikat komputerisasi . Pemakaian CA membantu menghindari pembuatan sertifikat komputerisasi palsu.
Validasi penyedia layanan kepercayaan (TSP). TSP merupakan orang atau badan hukum yang menjalankan validasi pedoman tangan komputerisasi atas nama perusahaan dan menawarkan laporan validasi petunjuk tangan.
Manfaat lain menggunakan pertanda tangan komputerisasi adalah sebagai berikut:

Stempel waktu. Dengan memberikan data dan waktu pedoman tangan komputerisasi, timestamping berkhasiat dikala waktunya sangat penting, seperti untuk perdagangan saham, penerbitan karcis lotere, dan pengerjaan hukum.
Diterima secara global dan sesuai dengan aturan. Standar infrastruktur kunci publik ( PKI ) memutuskan kunci yang dibuat oleh vendor dihasilkan dan disimpan dengan aman. Karena standar internasional, kian banyak negara yang menerima tanda tangan komputerisasi sebagai sesuatu yang mengikat secara undang-undang.
Penghematan waktu. Tanda tangan komputerisasi menyederhanakan pengerjaan penandatanganan, penyimpanan, dan pertukaran dokumen lahiriah yang memakan waktu, memungkinkan bisnis mengakses dan menandatangani dokumen dengan kencang.
Penghematan biaya. Organisasi dapat menjadi tanpa kertas dan menghemat uang yang sebelumnya dihabiskan untuk sumber daya lahiriah dan waktu, personel, dan ruang kantor yang dipakai untuk mengelola dan mengangkutnya.
Pengaruh lingkungan yang positif. Mengurangi penggunaan kertas juga mengurangi limbah fisik yang diwujudkan oleh kertas dan imbas negatif lingkungan dari pengangkutan dokumen kertas.
Ketertelusuran. Pedoman tangan komputerisasi menciptakan jejak audit yang membikin pencatatan internal lebih mudah untuk bisnis. Dengan segala sesuatu yang direkam dan disimpan secara komputerisasi, ada lebih sedikit kesempatan bagi penandatangan manual atau pemegang catatan untuk membuat kekeliruan atau salah menaruhkan sesuatu.
Bagaimana sistem membuat pedoman tangan komputerisasi?
Untuk membuat tanda tangan komputerisasi, perangkat lunak penandatanganan, seperti program surel, diterapkan untuk menyediakan hash satu arah dari data elektronik yang akan ditandatangani.

Hash adalah string huruf dan angka dengan panjang tetap yang dihasilkan oleh suatu algoritma. Sistem pribadi pembuat tanda tangan komputerisasi kemudian dipakai untuk mengenkripsi hash. Hash terenkripsi — bersama dengan isu lain, seperti algoritma hashing — merupakan pedoman tangan komputerisasi.

Tanda Tangan Elektronik di Sulawesi Tengah

The reason for encrypting the hash instead of the entire message or document is a hash function can convert an arbitrary input into a fixed-length value, which is usually much shorter. This saves time as hashing is much faster than signing.

The value of a hash is unique to the hashed data. Any change in the data, even a change in a single character, will result in a different value. This attribute enables others to use the signer\’s public key to decrypt the hash to validate the integrity of the data.

If the decrypted hash matches a second computed hash of the same data, it proves that the data hasn\’t changed since it was signed. If the two hashes don\’t match, the data has either been tampered with in some way and is compromised or the signature was created with a private key that doesn\’t correspond to the public key presented by the signer — an issue with authentication.

Digital kerja pedoman tangan komputerisasi
A person creates a komputerisasi signature using a private key to encrypt the signature. At the same time, hash data is created and encrypted. The recipient uses the signer\’s public key to decrypt the signature.
A digital signature can be used with any kind of message, whether it is encrypted or not, simply so the receiver can be sure of the sender\’s identity and the message arrived intact. Digital signatures make it difficult for the signer to deny having signed something as the digital signature is unique to both the document and the signer and it binds them together. This property is called nonrepudiation.

Komputerisasi signatures are not to be confused with komputerisasi certificates. A digital certificate is an electronic document that contains the digital signature of the issuing CA. It binds together a public key with an identity and can be used to verify that a public key belongs to a particular person or entity.

Most modern surel programs support the use of komputerisasi signatures and digital certificates, making it easy to sign any outgoing emails and validate digitally signed incoming messages. Digital signatures are also used extensively to provide proof of authenticity, data integrity and nonrepudiation of communications and transactions conducted over the dunia online.

Classes and types of digital signatures
There are three different classes of komputerisasi signature certificates (DSCs):

Class 1. Cannot be used for legal business documents as they are validated based only on an email ID and nama akun. Class 1 signatures provide a basic tingkatan of security and are used in environments with a low risk of data compromise.
Class 2. Often used for electronic filing (e-filing) of tax documents, including income tax returns and goods and services tax (GST) returns. Class 2 komputerisasi signatures authenticate a signer\’s identity against a pre-verified database. Class 2 komputerisasi signatures are used in environments where the risks and consequences of data compromise are moderate.
Class 3. The highest tahapan of digital signatures, Class 3 signatures require a person or organization to present in front of a certifying authority to prove their identity before signing. Class 3 komputerisasi signatures are used for e-auctions, e-tendering, e-ticketing, court filings and in other environments where threats to data or the consequences of a security failure are high.
Uses for digital signatures
Industries use digital signature technology to streamline processes and improve document integrity. Industries that use komputerisasi signatures include the following:

Government. The U.S. Government Publishing Office (GPO) publishes electronic versions of budgets, public and private laws, and congressional bills with komputerisasi signatures. Komputerisasi signatures are used by governments worldwide for a variety of reasons, including processing tax returns, verifying business-to-government (B2G) transactions, ratifying laws and managing contracts. Most government entities must adhere to strict laws, regulations and standards when using komputerisasi signatures. Many governments and corporations also use smart cards to ID their citizens and employees. These are physical cards endowed with a komputerisasi signature that can be used to give the cardholder access to an institution\’s systems or physical buildings.
Healthcare. Komputerisasi signatures are used in the healthcare industry to improve the efficiency of treatment and administrative processes, to strengthen data security, for e-prescribing and hospital admissions. The use of digital signatures in healthcare must comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996.
Manufacturing. Manufacturing companies use komputerisasi signatures to speed up processes, including product design, quality assurance (QA), manufacturing enhancements, marketing and sales. The use of komputerisasi signatures in manufacturing is governed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Digital Manufacturing Certificate (DMC).
Financial services. The U.S. financial sector uses komputerisasi signatures for contracts, paperless banking, loan processing, insurance documentation, mortgages and more. This heavily regulated sector uses komputerisasi signatures with careful attention to the regulations and guidance put forth by the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (E-Sign Act), state Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (UETA) regulations, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) and the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC).
Cryptocurrencies. Komputerisasi signatures are also used in bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies to authenticate the blockchain. They are also used to manage transaction data associated with cryptocurrency and as a way for users to show ownership of currency or their participation in a transaction.
Why use PKI or PGP with komputerisasi signatures?
Komputerisasi signatures use the PKI standard and the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) encryption program because both reduce potential security issues that come with transmitting public keys. They validate that the sender\’s public key belongs to that individual and verify the sender\’s identity.

PKI is a framework for services that generate, distribute, control and account for public key certificates. PGP is a variation of the PKI standard that uses symmetric key and public key cryptography, but it differs in how it binds public keys to user identities. PKI uses CAs to validate and bind a user identity with a digital certificate, whereas PGP uses a laman of trust. Users of PGP choose who they trust and which identities get vetted. PKI users defer to trusted CAs.

The effectiveness of a digital signature\’s security is dependent on the strength of the private key security. Without PKI or PGP, it\’s impossible to prove someone\’s identity or revoke a compromised key, and it\’s easier for malicious actors to impersonate people.

What\’s the difference between a komputerisasi signature and an electronic signature?
Though the two terms sound similar, digital signatures are different from electronic signatures. Digital signature is a technical term, defining the result of a cryptographic process or mathematical algorithm that can be used to authenticate a sequence of data. The term electronic signature — or e-signature — is a sah term that is defined legislatively.

For example, in the United States, the E-Sign Act, passed in 2000, defined e-signature as meaning \”an electronic sound, symbol or process, attached to or logically associated with a contract or other record and executed or adopted by a person with the intent to sign the record.\”

E-signatures are also defined in the Electronic Signatures Directive, which the European Union (EU) passed in 1999 and repealed in 2016. It regarded them as equivalent to physical signatures. This act was replaced with eIDAS (electronic identification authentication and trust services), which regulates e-signatures and transactions, and the embedding processes that ensure the safe conduct of online business.

This means that a komputerisasi signature — which can be expressed digitally in electronic form and associated with the representation of a record — can be a type of e-signature. More generally, though, an e-signature can be as simple as the signer\’s name being entered on a form on a webpage.

To be considered valid, e-signature schemes must include three things:

a way to verify the identity of the entity signing it;
a way to verify the signing entity intended to affirm the document being signed; and
a way to verify that the e-signature is associated with the signed document.
A komputerisasi signature can, on its own, fulfill these requirements to serve as an e-signature:

the public key of the komputerisasi signature is linked to the signing entity\’s electronic identification;
the komputerisasi signature can only be affixed by the holder of the public key\’s associated private key, which implies the entity intends to use it for the signature; and
the komputerisasi signature will only authenticate if the signed data, i.e., document or representation of a document, is unchanged — if a document is altered after being signed, the digital signature will fail to authenticate.
While authenticated komputerisasi signatures provide cryptographic proof a document was signed by the stated entity and the document has not been altered, not all e-signatures provide the same guarantees.

digital signature vs. electronic signature
Learn how komputerisasi signatures and electronic signatures compare.
Digital signature tools and vendors
Komputerisasi signature tools and services are commonly used in contract-heavy industries. For example, when freelance writers sign a contract, they can agree to word count and payment, using Adobe Sign to put their e-signature on the document.

Komputerisasi and e-signature service providers include the following:

< a href= 'https://enkripa.id/tanda-tangan-elektronik/'>tanda tangan elekronik di Sumatera Utara

Adobe Sign is designed to provide secure, sah e-signatures across all device types.
DocuSign standards-based services ensure e-signatures are compliant with existing regulations. Its services include Express Signature for basic global transactions and the EU Qualified Signature, which complies with EU standards.
GlobalSign provides a host of management, integration and automation tools to implement PKI across enterprise environments.
SignEasy offers an e-signing service of the same name to businesses and individuals, as well as providing application programming interfaces (APIs) for developers.
SignNow, which is part of the airSlate business cloud, provides an easy-to-use Portable Document (PDF) signing tool for businesses.
Vasco provides its eSignLive e-signature product as a cloud service and on premises.

Tanda Tangan Elektronik di Riau

tanda tangan elektronik can provide evidence of origin, identity and status of electronic documents, transactions or Digital messages. Signers can also use them to acknowledge informed consent.

In many countries, including the United States, digital signatures are considered legally binding in the same way as traditional handwritten document signatures.

How do komputerisasi signatures work?
Komputerisasi signatures are based on public key cryptography, also known as asymmetric cryptography. Using a public key algorithm, such as RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman), two keys are generated, creating a mathematically linked pair of keys, one private and one public.

Digital signatures work through public key cryptography\’s two mutually authenticating cryptographic keys. The individual who creates the komputerisasi signature uses a private key to encrypt signature-related data, while the only way to decrypt that data is with the signer\’s public key.

If the recipient can\’t open the document with the signer\’s public key, that\’s a sign there\’s a masalah with the document or the signature. This is how digital signatures are authenticated.

Komputerisasi signature technology requires all parties trust that the individual creating the signature has kept the private key secret. If someone else has access to the private signing key, that party could create fraudulent digital signatures in the name of the private key holder.

What are the benefits of komputerisasi signatures?
Security is the main benefit of komputerisasi signatures. Security capabilities embedded in komputerisasi signatures ensure a document is not altered and signatures are legitimate. Security features and methods used in komputerisasi signatures include the following:

Personal identification numbers (PINs), passwords and codes. Used to authenticate and verify a signer\’s identity and approve their signature. Elektronik, nama pengguna and password are the most common methods used.
Asymmetric cryptography. Employs a public key algorithm that includes private and public key encryption and authentication.
Ceksum . Rangkaian panjang huruf dan angka yang mewakili jumlah digit yang benar dalam sepotong data digital, yang dapat diciptakan perbandingan untuk mendeteksi kekeliruan atau perubahan. Sebuah checksum bertindak sebagai sidik jari data.
Pemeriksaan redundansi siklik ( CRC ). Kode pendeteksi kekeliruan dan fitur verifikasi yang diterapkan dalam jaringan komputerisasi dan perangkat penyimpanan untuk mendeteksi perubahan pada data mentah.
Validasi otoritas akta ( CA ). CA menerbitkan tanda tangan digital dan bertindak sebagai pihak ketiga tepercaya dengan menerima, mengautentikasi, menerbitkan, dan memelihara sertifikat digital . Pengaplikasian CA membantu menghindari pembuatan akta komputerisasi palsu.
Validasi penyedia layanan kepercayaan (TSP). TSP merupakan orang atau badan undang-undang yang menjalankan validasi pedoman tangan komputerisasi atas nama perusahaan dan menawarkan laporan validasi petunjuk tangan.
Manfaat lain mengaplikasikan tanda tangan digital merupakan sebagai berikut:

Stempel waktu. Dengan memberikan data dan waktu pertanda tangan digital, timestamping bermanfaat saat waktunya betul-betul penting, seperti untuk perdagangan saham, penerbitan tiket lotere, dan pengerjaan aturan.
Diterima secara global dan sesuai dengan regulasi. Standar infrastruktur kunci publik ( PKI ) menentukan kunci yang dibuat oleh vendor diciptakan dan disimpan dengan aman. Karena standar internasional, semakin banyak negara yang menerima petunjuk tangan digital sebagai sesuatu yang mengikat secara tata tertib.
Penghematan waktu. Tanda tangan digital menyederhanakan progres penandatanganan, penyimpanan, dan pertukaran dokumen jasmaniah yang memakan waktu, memungkinkan bisnis mengakses dan menandatangani dokumen dengan kencang.
Penghematan biaya. Organisasi bisa menjadi tanpa kertas dan menghemat uang yang sebelumnya dihabiskan untuk sumber energi jasmani dan waktu, personel, dan ruang kantor yang diterapkan untuk mengelola dan mengangkutnya.
Pengaruh lingkungan yang positif. Mengurangi penggunaan kertas juga mengurangi limbah jasmaniah yang diciptakan oleh kertas dan dampak negatif lingkungan dari pengangkutan dokumen kertas.
Ketertelusuran. Pertanda tangan komputerisasi menjadikan jejak audit yang membikin pencatatan internal lebih gampang untuk bisnis. Dengan segala sesuatu yang direkam dan disimpan secara komputerisasi, ada lebih sedikit peluang bagi penandatangan manual atau pemegang catatan untuk membikin kekeliruan atau salah menaruhkan sesuatu.
Bagaimana metode membuat pedoman tangan digital?
Untuk membuat petunjuk tangan komputerisasi, perangkat lunak penandatanganan, seperti program email, digunakan untuk menyediakan hash satu arah dari data elektronik yang akan ditandatangani.

Hash yakni string huruf dan angka dengan panjang konsisten yang diciptakan oleh suatu algoritma. Sistem pribadi pembuat pedoman tangan digital kemudian diaplikasikan untuk mengenkripsi hash. Hash terenkripsi — bersama dengan isu lain, seperti algoritma hashing — ialah tanda tangan komputerisasi.

Tanda Tangan Elektronik di Bangka Belitung Banten

The reason for encrypting the hash instead of the entire message or document is a hash function can convert an arbitrary input into a fixed-length value, which is usually much shorter. This saves time as hashing is much faster than signing.

The value of a hash is unique to the hashed data. Any change in the data, even a change in a single character, will result in a different value. This attribute enables others to use the signer\’s public key to decrypt the hash to validate the integrity of the data.

If the decrypted hash matches a second computed hash of the same data, it proves that the data hasn\’t changed since it was signed. If the two hashes don\’t match, the data has either been tampered with in some way and is compromised or the signature was created with a private key that doesn\’t correspond to the public key presented by the signer — an issue with authentication.

Digital kerja pertanda tangan digital
A person creates a komputerisasi signature using a private key to encrypt the signature. At the same time, hash data is created and encrypted. The recipient uses the signer\’s public key to decrypt the signature.
A digital signature can be used with any kind of message, whether it is encrypted or not, simply so the receiver can be sure of the sender\’s identity and the message arrived intact. Digital signatures make it difficult for the signer to deny having signed something as the digital signature is unique to both the document and the signer and it binds them together. This property is called nonrepudiation.

Digital signatures are not to be confused with komputerisasi certificates. A digital certificate is an electronic document that contains the digital signature of the issuing CA. It binds together a public key with an identity and can be used to verify that a public key belongs to a particular person or entity.

Most modern surat elektronik programs support the use of digital signatures and komputerisasi certificates, making it easy to sign any outgoing emails and validate digitally signed incoming messages. Digital signatures are also used extensively to provide proof of authenticity, data integrity and nonrepudiation of communications and transactions conducted over the dunia maya.

Classes and types of komputerisasi signatures
There are three different classes of digital signature certificates (DSCs):

Class 1. Cannot be used for sah business documents as they are validated based only on an e-mail ID and nama pengguna. Class 1 signatures provide a basic tahapan of security and are used in environments with a low risk of data compromise.
Class 2. Often used for electronic filing (e-filing) of tax documents, including income tax returns and goods and services tax (GST) returns. Class 2 komputerisasi signatures authenticate a signer\’s identity against a pre-verified database. Class 2 komputerisasi signatures are used in environments where the risks and consequences of data compromise are moderate.
Class 3. The highest tahapan of komputerisasi signatures, Class 3 signatures require a person or organization to present in front of a certifying authority to prove their identity before signing. Class 3 digital signatures are used for e-auctions, e-tendering, e-ticketing, court filings and in other environments where threats to data or the consequences of a security failure are high.
Uses for komputerisasi signatures
Industries use digital signature technology to streamline processes and improve document integrity. Industries that use digital signatures include the following:

Government. The U.S. Government Publishing Office (GPO) publishes electronic versions of budgets, public and private laws, and congressional bills with komputerisasi signatures. Digital signatures are used by governments worldwide for a variety of reasons, including processing tax returns, verifying business-to-government (B2G) transactions, ratifying laws and managing contracts. Most government entities must adhere to strict laws, regulations and standards when using digital signatures. Many governments and corporations also use smart cards to ID their citizens and employees. These are physical cards endowed with a komputerisasi signature that can be used to give the cardholder access to an institution\’s systems or physical buildings.
Healthcare. Komputerisasi signatures are used in the healthcare industry to improve the efficiency of treatment and administrative processes, to strengthen data security, for e-prescribing and hospital admissions. The use of komputerisasi signatures in healthcare must comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996.
Manufacturing. Manufacturing companies use komputerisasi signatures to speed up processes, including product design, quality assurance (QA), manufacturing enhancements, marketing and sales. The use of komputerisasi signatures in manufacturing is governed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Komputerisasi Manufacturing Certificate (DMC).
Financial services. The U.S. financial sector uses komputerisasi signatures for contracts, paperless banking, loan processing, insurance documentation, mortgages and more. This heavily regulated sector uses digital signatures with careful attention to the regulations and guidance put forth by the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (E-Sign Act), state Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (UETA) regulations, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) and the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC).
Cryptocurrencies. Digital signatures are also used in bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies to authenticate the blockchain. They are also used to manage transaction data associated with cryptocurrency and as a way for users to show ownership of currency or their participation in a transaction.
Why use PKI or PGP with digital signatures?
Digital signatures use the PKI standard and the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) encryption program because both reduce potential security issues that come with transmitting public keys. They validate that the sender\’s public key belongs to that individual and verify the sender\’s identity.

PKI is a framework for services that generate, distribute, control and account for public key certificates. PGP is a variation of the PKI standard that uses symmetric key and public key cryptography, but it differs in how it binds public keys to user identities. PKI uses CAs to validate and bind a user identity with a digital certificate, whereas PGP uses a web of trust. Users of PGP choose who they trust and which identities get vetted. PKI users defer to trusted CAs.

The effectiveness of a komputerisasi signature\’s security is dependent on the strength of the private key security. Without PKI or PGP, it\’s impossible to prove someone\’s identity or revoke a compromised key, and it\’s easier for malicious actors to impersonate people.

What\’s the difference between a komputerisasi signature and an electronic signature?
Though the two terms sound similar, digital signatures are different from electronic signatures. Komputerisasi signature is a technical term, defining the result of a cryptographic process or mathematical algorithm that can be used to authenticate a sequence of data. The term electronic signature — or e-signature — is a resmi term that is defined legislatively.

For example, in the United States, the E-Sign Act, passed in 2000, defined e-signature as meaning \”an electronic sound, symbol or process, attached to or logically associated with a contract or other record and executed or adopted by a person with the intent to sign the record.\”

E-signatures are also defined in the Electronic Signatures Directive, which the European Union (EU) passed in 1999 and repealed in 2016. It regarded them as equivalent to physical signatures. This act was replaced with eIDAS (electronic identification authentication and trust services), which regulates e-signatures and transactions, and the embedding processes that ensure the safe conduct of online business.

This means that a komputerisasi signature — which can be expressed digitally in electronic form and associated with the representation of a record — can be a type of e-signature. More generally, though, an e-signature can be as simple as the signer\’s name being entered on a form on a webpage.

To be considered valid, e-signature schemes must include three things:

a way to verify the identity of the entity signing it;
a way to verify the signing entity intended to affirm the document being signed; and
a way to verify that the e-signature is associated with the signed document.
A digital signature can, on its own, fulfill these requirements to serve as an e-signature:

the public key of the komputerisasi signature is linked to the signing entity\’s electronic identification;
the komputerisasi signature can only be affixed by the holder of the public key\’s associated private key, which implies the entity intends to use it for the signature; and
the digital signature will only authenticate if the signed data, i.e., document or representation of a document, is unchanged — if a document is altered after being signed, the komputerisasi signature will fail to authenticate.
While authenticated digital signatures provide cryptographic proof a document was signed by the stated entity and the document has not been altered, not all e-signatures provide the same guarantees.

komputerisasi signature vs. electronic signature
Learn how digital signatures and electronic signatures compare.
Komputerisasi signature tools and vendors
Komputerisasi signature tools and services are commonly used in contract-heavy industries. For example, when freelance writers sign a contract, they can agree to word count and payment, using Adobe Sign to put their e-signature on the document.

Komputerisasi and e-signature service providers include the following:

< a href= 'https://enkripa.id/tanda-tangan-elektronik/'>tanda tangan digital di Bengkulu

Adobe Sign is designed to provide secure, sah e-signatures across all device types.
DocuSign standards-based services ensure e-signatures are compliant with existing regulations. Its services include Express Signature for basic global transactions and the EU Qualified Signature, which complies with EU standards.
GlobalSign provides a host of management, integration and automation tools to implement PKI across enterprise environments.
SignEasy offers an e-signing service of the same name to businesses and individuals, as well as providing application programming interfaces (APIs) for developers.
SignNow, which is part of the airSlate business cloud, provides an easy-to-use Portable Document (PDF) signing tool for businesses.
Vasco provides its eSignLive e-signature product as a cloud service and on premises.

Tanda Tangan Elektronik di Nusa Tenggara Timur

tanda tangan Digital can provide evidence of origin, identity and status of electronic documents, transactions or Digital messages. Signers can also use them to acknowledge informed consent.

In many countries, including the United States, komputerisasi signatures are considered legally binding in the same way as traditional handwritten document signatures.

How do komputerisasi signatures work?
Komputerisasi signatures are based on public key cryptography, also known as asymmetric cryptography. Using a public key algorithm, such as RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman), two keys are generated, creating a mathematically linked pair of keys, one private and one public.

Komputerisasi signatures work through public key cryptography\’s two mutually authenticating cryptographic keys. The individual who creates the digital signature uses a private key to encrypt signature-related data, while the only way to decrypt that data is with the signer\’s public key.

If the recipient can\’t open the document with the signer\’s public key, that\’s a sign there\’s a dilema with the document or the signature. This is how komputerisasi signatures are authenticated.

Digital signature technology requires all parties trust that the individual creating the signature has kept the private key secret. If someone else has access to the private signing key, that party could create fraudulent digital signatures in the name of the private key holder.

What are the benefits of komputerisasi signatures?
Security is the main benefit of komputerisasi signatures. Security capabilities embedded in digital signatures ensure a document is not altered and signatures are legitimate. Security features and methods used in digital signatures include the following:

Personal identification numbers (PINs), passwords and codes. Used to authenticate and verify a signer\’s identity and approve their signature. Surat, nama akun and password are the most common methods used.
Asymmetric cryptography. Employs a public key algorithm that includes private and public key encryption and authentication.
Ceksum . Rangkaian panjang huruf dan angka yang mewakili jumlah digit yang benar dalam sepotong data digital, yang bisa dijadikan perbandingan untuk mendeteksi kesalahan atau perubahan. Sebuah checksum berbuat sebagai sidik jari data.
Pemeriksaan redundansi siklik ( CRC ). Kode pendeteksi kesalahan dan fitur verifikasi yang diterapkan dalam jaringan digital dan perangkat penyimpanan untuk mendeteksi perubahan pada data mentah.
Validasi otoritas sertifikat ( CA ). CA menerbitkan pedoman tangan digital dan bertindak sebagai pihak ketiga tepercaya dengan mendapatkan, mengautentikasi, menerbitkan, dan memelihara akta digital . Pengaplikasian CA menolong menghindari pembuatan sertifikat digital palsu.
Validasi penyedia layanan kepercayaan (TSP). TSP yakni orang atau badan aturan yang menjalankan validasi tanda tangan komputerisasi atas nama perusahaan dan menawarkan laporan validasi pedoman tangan.
Manfaat lain menerapkan pedoman tangan komputerisasi adalah sebagai berikut:

Stempel waktu. Dengan memberikan data dan waktu petunjuk tangan digital, timestamping berkhasiat saat waktunya benar-benar penting, seperti untuk perdagangan saham, penerbitan karcis lotere, dan pelaksanaan peraturan.
Diterima secara global dan pantas dengan undang-undang. Standar infrastruktur kunci publik ( PKI ) memutuskan kunci yang dihasilkan oleh vendor dihasilkan dan disimpan dengan aman. Karena standar internasional, semakin banyak negara yang mendapatkan tanda tangan komputerisasi sebagai sesuatu yang mengikat secara undang-undang.
Penghematan waktu. Petunjuk tangan digital menyederhanakan pelaksanaan penandatanganan, penyimpanan, dan pertukaran dokumen jasmani yang memakan waktu, memungkinkan bisnis mengakses dan menandatangani dokumen dengan cepat.
Penghematan tarif. Organisasi bisa menjadi tanpa kertas dan menghemat uang yang sebelumnya dihabiskan untuk sumber daya jasmaniah dan waktu, personel, dan ruang kantor yang diaplikasikan untuk mengelola dan mengangkutnya.
Imbas lingkungan yang positif. Mengurangi penggunaan kertas juga mengurangi limbah jasmani yang dijadikan oleh kertas dan dampak negatif lingkungan dari pengangkutan dokumen kertas.
Ketertelusuran. Pertanda tangan digital menjadikan jejak audit yang membuat pencatatan internal lebih gampang untuk bisnis. Dengan semua sesuatu yang direkam dan disimpan secara komputerisasi, ada lebih sedikit kesempatan bagi penandatangan manual atau pemegang catatan untuk membikin kesalahan atau salah menaruhkan sesuatu.
Bagaimana cara membuat pertanda tangan digital?
Untuk membikin pertanda tangan komputerisasi, perangkat lunak penandatanganan, seperti program e-mail, diaplikasikan untuk menyediakan hash satu arah dari data elektronik yang akan ditandatangani.

Hash adalah string huruf dan angka dengan panjang tetap yang dibuat oleh suatu algoritma. Cara pribadi pembuat pertanda tangan komputerisasi kemudian digunakan untuk mengenkripsi hash. Hash terenkripsi — bersama dengan berita lain, seperti algoritma hashing — merupakan pertanda tangan komputerisasi.

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The reason for encrypting the hash instead of the entire message or document is a hash function can convert an arbitrary input into a fixed-length value, which is usually much shorter. This saves time as hashing is much faster than signing.

The value of a hash is unique to the hashed data. Any change in the data, even a change in a single character, will result in a different value. This attribute enables others to use the signer\’s public key to decrypt the hash to validate the integrity of the data.

If the decrypted hash matches a second computed hash of the same data, it proves that the data hasn\’t changed since it was signed. If the two hashes don\’t match, the data has either been tampered with in some way and is compromised or the signature was created with a private key that doesn\’t correspond to the public key presented by the signer — an issue with authentication.

Digital kerja tanda tangan komputerisasi
A person creates a komputerisasi signature using a private key to encrypt the signature. At the same time, hash data is created and encrypted. The recipient uses the signer\’s public key to decrypt the signature.
A komputerisasi signature can be used with any kind of message, whether it is encrypted or not, simply so the receiver can be sure of the sender\’s identity and the message arrived intact. Digital signatures make it difficult for the signer to deny having signed something as the komputerisasi signature is unique to both the document and the signer and it binds them together. This property is called nonrepudiation.

Komputerisasi signatures are not to be confused with komputerisasi certificates. A digital certificate is an electronic document that contains the digital signature of the issuing CA. It binds together a public key with an identity and can be used to verify that a public key belongs to a particular person or entity.

Most modern surel programs support the use of digital signatures and komputerisasi certificates, making it easy to sign any outgoing emails and validate digitally signed incoming messages. Digital signatures are also used extensively to provide proof of authenticity, data integrity and nonrepudiation of communications and transactions conducted over the dunia online.

Classes and types of digital signatures
There are three different classes of komputerisasi signature certificates (DSCs):

Class 1. Cannot be used for legal business documents as they are validated based only on an email ID and username. Class 1 signatures provide a basic tingkatan of security and are used in environments with a low risk of data compromise.
Class 2. Often used for electronic filing (e-filing) of tax documents, including income tax returns and goods and services tax (GST) returns. Class 2 digital signatures authenticate a signer\’s identity against a pre-verified database. Class 2 komputerisasi signatures are used in environments where the risks and consequences of data compromise are moderate.
Class 3. The highest jenjang of komputerisasi signatures, Class 3 signatures require a person or organization to present in front of a certifying authority to prove their identity before signing. Class 3 komputerisasi signatures are used for e-auctions, e-tendering, e-ticketing, court filings and in other environments where threats to data or the consequences of a security failure are high.
Uses for komputerisasi signatures
Industries use digital signature technology to streamline processes and improve document integrity. Industries that use digital signatures include the following:

Government. The U.S. Government Publishing Office (GPO) publishes electronic versions of budgets, public and private laws, and congressional bills with komputerisasi signatures. Digital signatures are used by governments worldwide for a variety of reasons, including processing tax returns, verifying business-to-government (B2G) transactions, ratifying laws and managing contracts. Most government entities must adhere to strict laws, regulations and standards when using digital signatures. Many governments and corporations also use smart cards to ID their citizens and employees. These are physical cards endowed with a digital signature that can be used to give the cardholder access to an institution\’s systems or physical buildings.
Healthcare. Digital signatures are used in the healthcare industry to improve the efficiency of treatment and administrative processes, to strengthen data security, for e-prescribing and hospital admissions. The use of digital signatures in healthcare must comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996.
Manufacturing. Manufacturing companies use komputerisasi signatures to speed up processes, including product design, quality assurance (QA), manufacturing enhancements, marketing and sales. The use of digital signatures in manufacturing is governed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Komputerisasi Manufacturing Certificate (DMC).
Financial services. The U.S. financial sector uses komputerisasi signatures for contracts, paperless banking, loan processing, insurance documentation, mortgages and more. This heavily regulated sector uses digital signatures with careful attention to the regulations and guidance put forth by the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (E-Sign Act), state Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (UETA) regulations, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) and the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC).
Cryptocurrencies. Digital signatures are also used in bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies to authenticate the blockchain. They are also used to manage transaction data associated with cryptocurrency and as a way for users to show ownership of currency or their participation in a transaction.
Why use PKI or PGP with digital signatures?
Digital signatures use the PKI standard and the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) encryption program because both reduce potential security issues that come with transmitting public keys. They validate that the sender\’s public key belongs to that individual and verify the sender\’s identity.

PKI is a framework for services that generate, distribute, control and account for public key certificates. PGP is a variation of the PKI standard that uses symmetric key and public key cryptography, but it differs in how it binds public keys to user identities. PKI uses CAs to validate and bind a user identity with a komputerisasi certificate, whereas PGP uses a web of trust. Users of PGP choose who they trust and which identities get vetted. PKI users defer to trusted CAs.

The effectiveness of a komputerisasi signature\’s security is dependent on the strength of the private key security. Without PKI or PGP, it\’s impossible to prove someone\’s identity or revoke a compromised key, and it\’s easier for malicious actors to impersonate people.

What\’s the difference between a komputerisasi signature and an electronic signature?
Though the two terms sound similar, komputerisasi signatures are different from electronic signatures. Komputerisasi signature is a technical term, defining the result of a cryptographic process or mathematical algorithm that can be used to authenticate a sequence of data. The term electronic signature — or e-signature — is a sah term that is defined legislatively.

For example, in the United States, the E-Sign Act, passed in 2000, defined e-signature as meaning \”an electronic sound, symbol or process, attached to or logically associated with a contract or other record and executed or adopted by a person with the intent to sign the record.\”

E-signatures are also defined in the Electronic Signatures Directive, which the European Union (EU) passed in 1999 and repealed in 2016. It regarded them as equivalent to physical signatures. This act was replaced with eIDAS (electronic identification authentication and trust services), which regulates e-signatures and transactions, and the embedding processes that ensure the safe conduct of online business.

This means that a komputerisasi signature — which can be expressed digitally in electronic form and associated with the representation of a record — can be a type of e-signature. More generally, though, an e-signature can be as simple as the signer\’s name being entered on a form on a webpage.

To be considered valid, e-signature schemes must include three things:

a way to verify the identity of the entity signing it;
a way to verify the signing entity intended to affirm the document being signed; and
a way to verify that the e-signature is associated with the signed document.
A digital signature can, on its own, fulfill these requirements to serve as an e-signature:

the public key of the digital signature is linked to the signing entity\’s electronic identification;
the komputerisasi signature can only be affixed by the holder of the public key\’s associated private key, which implies the entity intends to use it for the signature; and
the komputerisasi signature will only authenticate if the signed data, i.e., document or representation of a document, is unchanged — if a document is altered after being signed, the komputerisasi signature will fail to authenticate.
While authenticated komputerisasi signatures provide cryptographic proof a document was signed by the stated entity and the document has not been altered, not all e-signatures provide the same guarantees.

komputerisasi signature vs. electronic signature
Learn how komputerisasi signatures and electronic signatures compare.
Komputerisasi signature tools and vendors
Komputerisasi signature tools and services are commonly used in contract-heavy industries. For example, when pekerja paruh waktu writers sign a contract, they can agree to word count and payment, using Adobe Sign to put their e-signature on the document.

Digital and e-signature service providers include the following:

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Adobe Sign is designed to provide secure, resmi e-signatures across all device types.
DocuSign standards-based services ensure e-signatures are compliant with existing regulations. Its services include Express Signature for basic global transactions and the EU Qualified Signature, which complies with EU standards.
GlobalSign provides a host of management, integration and automation tools to implement PKI across enterprise environments.
SignEasy offers an e-signing service of the same name to businesses and individuals, as well as providing application programming interfaces (APIs) for developers.
SignNow, which is part of the airSlate business cloud, provides an easy-to-use Portable Document (PDF) signing tool for businesses.
Vasco provides its eSignLive e-signature product as a cloud service and on premises.

Tanda Tangan Elektronik di Riau

tanda tangan Digital can provide evidence of origin, identity and status of electronic documents, transactions or elektronik messages. Signers can also use them to acknowledge informed consent.

In many countries, including the United States, digital signatures are considered legally binding in the same way as traditional handwritten document signatures.

How do komputerisasi signatures work?
Komputerisasi signatures are based on public key cryptography, also known as asymmetric cryptography. Using a public key algorithm, such as RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman), two keys are generated, creating a mathematically linked pair of keys, one private and one public.

Digital signatures work through public key cryptography\’s two mutually authenticating cryptographic keys. The individual who creates the komputerisasi signature uses a private key to encrypt signature-related data, while the only way to decrypt that data is with the signer\’s public key.

If the recipient can\’t open the document with the signer\’s public key, that\’s a sign there\’s a dilema with the document or the signature. This is how digital signatures are authenticated.

Digital signature technology requires all parties trust that the individual creating the signature has kept the private key secret. If someone else has access to the private signing key, that party could create fraudulent digital signatures in the name of the private key holder.

What are the benefits of komputerisasi signatures?
Security is the main benefit of digital signatures. Security capabilities embedded in komputerisasi signatures ensure a document is not altered and signatures are legitimate. Security features and methods used in komputerisasi signatures include the following:

Personal identification numbers (PINs), passwords and codes. Used to authenticate and verify a signer\’s identity and approve their signature. Email, nama akun and kata sandi are the most common methods used.
Asymmetric cryptography. Employs a public key algorithm that includes private and public key encryption and authentication.
Ceksum . Rangkaian panjang huruf dan angka yang mewakili jumlah digit yang benar dalam sepotong data komputerisasi, yang dapat dijadikan perbandingan untuk mendeteksi kesalahan atau perubahan. Sebuah checksum bertindak sebagai sidik jari data.
Pemeriksaan redundansi siklik ( CRC ). Kode pendeteksi kekeliruan dan fitur verifikasi yang diaplikasikan dalam jaringan komputerisasi dan perangkat penyimpanan untuk mendeteksi perubahan pada data mentah.
Validasi otoritas sertifikat ( CA ). CA menerbitkan pertanda tangan komputerisasi dan berperilaku sebagai pihak ketiga tepercaya dengan mendapatkan, mengautentikasi, menerbitkan, dan memelihara sertifikat digital . Penerapan CA membantu menghindari pembuatan sertifikat digital palsu.
Validasi penyedia layanan kepercayaan (TSP). TSP merupakan orang atau badan peraturan yang menjalankan validasi tanda tangan digital atas nama perusahaan dan menawarkan laporan validasi tanda tangan.
Manfaat lain menggunakan tanda tangan digital yakni sebagai berikut:

Stempel waktu. Dengan memberikan data dan waktu tanda tangan komputerisasi, timestamping berguna dikala waktunya betul-betul penting, seperti untuk perdagangan saham, penerbitan karcis lotere, dan pengerjaan tata tertib.
Diterima secara global dan cocok dengan peraturan. Standar infrastruktur kunci publik ( PKI ) mempertimbangkan kunci yang dihasilkan oleh vendor diwujudkan dan disimpan dengan aman. Karena standar internasional, semakin banyak negara yang mendapatkan pedoman tangan digital sebagai sesuatu yang mengikat secara regulasi.
Penghematan waktu. Tanda tangan digital menyederhanakan pelaksanaan penandatanganan, penyimpanan, dan pertukaran dokumen jasmaniah yang memakan waktu, memungkinkan bisnis mengakses dan menandatangani dokumen dengan kencang.
Penghematan biaya. Organisasi bisa menjadi tanpa kertas dan menghemat uang yang sebelumnya dihabiskan untuk sumber energi jasmani dan waktu, personel, dan ruang kantor yang diterapkan untuk mengelola dan mengangkutnya.
Pengaruh lingkungan yang positif. Mengurangi penggunaan kertas juga mengurangi limbah jasmaniah yang diciptakan oleh kertas dan pengaruh negatif lingkungan dari pengangkutan dokumen kertas.
Ketertelusuran. Petunjuk tangan komputerisasi menciptakan jejak audit yang membuat pencatatan internal lebih gampang untuk bisnis. Dengan semua sesuatu yang direkam dan disimpan secara digital, ada lebih sedikit peluang bagi penandatangan manual atau pemegang catatan untuk membuat kekeliruan atau salah menaruhkan sesuatu.
Bagaimana metode membuat pertanda tangan komputerisasi?
Untuk membuat pertanda tangan digital, perangkat lunak penandatanganan, seperti program email, dipakai untuk menyediakan hash satu arah dari data elektronik yang akan ditandatangani.

Hash adalah string huruf dan angka dengan panjang tetap yang dibuat oleh suatu algoritma. Cara pribadi pembuat pedoman tangan komputerisasi kemudian dipakai untuk mengenkripsi hash. Hash terenkripsi — bersama dengan kabar lain, seperti algoritma hashing — yaitu petunjuk tangan digital.

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The reason for encrypting the hash instead of the entire message or document is a hash function can convert an arbitrary input into a fixed-length value, which is usually much shorter. This saves time as hashing is much faster than signing.

The value of a hash is unique to the hashed data. Any change in the data, even a change in a single character, will result in a different value. This attribute enables others to use the signer\’s public key to decrypt the hash to validate the integrity of the data.

If the decrypted hash matches a second computed hash of the same data, it proves that the data hasn\’t changed since it was signed. If the two hashes don\’t match, the data has either been tampered with in some way and is compromised or the signature was created with a private key that doesn\’t correspond to the public key presented by the signer — an issue with authentication.

Komputerisasi kerja pertanda tangan digital
A person creates a komputerisasi signature using a private key to encrypt the signature. At the same time, hash data is created and encrypted. The recipient uses the signer\’s public key to decrypt the signature.
A komputerisasi signature can be used with any kind of message, whether it is encrypted or not, simply so the receiver can be sure of the sender\’s identity and the message arrived intact. Digital signatures make it difficult for the signer to deny having signed something as the komputerisasi signature is unique to both the document and the signer and it binds them together. This property is called nonrepudiation.

Komputerisasi signatures are not to be confused with komputerisasi certificates. A digital certificate is an electronic document that contains the digital signature of the issuing CA. It binds together a public key with an identity and can be used to verify that a public key belongs to a particular person or entity.

Most modern surel programs support the use of komputerisasi signatures and komputerisasi certificates, making it easy to sign any outgoing emails and validate digitally signed incoming messages. Komputerisasi signatures are also used extensively to provide proof of authenticity, data integrity and nonrepudiation of communications and transactions conducted over the internet.

Classes and types of komputerisasi signatures
There are three different classes of komputerisasi signature certificates (DSCs):

Class 1. Cannot be used for sah business documents as they are validated based only on an e-mail ID and nama akun. Class 1 signatures provide a basic jenjang of security and are used in environments with a low risk of data compromise.
Class 2. Often used for electronic filing (e-filing) of tax documents, including income tax returns and goods and services tax (GST) returns. Class 2 digital signatures authenticate a signer\’s identity against a pre-verified database. Class 2 komputerisasi signatures are used in environments where the risks and consequences of data compromise are moderate.
Class 3. The highest tahapan of digital signatures, Class 3 signatures require a person or organization to present in front of a certifying authority to prove their identity before signing. Class 3 komputerisasi signatures are used for e-auctions, e-tendering, e-ticketing, court filings and in other environments where threats to data or the consequences of a security failure are high.
Uses for digital signatures
Industries use digital signature technology to streamline processes and improve document integrity. Industries that use komputerisasi signatures include the following:

Government. The U.S. Government Publishing Office (GPO) publishes electronic versions of budgets, public and private laws, and congressional bills with komputerisasi signatures. Komputerisasi signatures are used by governments worldwide for a variety of reasons, including processing tax returns, verifying business-to-government (B2G) transactions, ratifying laws and managing contracts. Most government entities must adhere to strict laws, regulations and standards when using komputerisasi signatures. Many governments and corporations also use smart cards to ID their citizens and employees. These are physical cards endowed with a digital signature that can be used to give the cardholder access to an institution\’s systems or physical buildings.
Healthcare. Digital signatures are used in the healthcare industry to improve the efficiency of treatment and administrative processes, to strengthen data security, for e-prescribing and hospital admissions. The use of komputerisasi signatures in healthcare must comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996.
Manufacturing. Manufacturing companies use komputerisasi signatures to speed up processes, including product design, quality assurance (QA), manufacturing enhancements, marketing and sales. The use of komputerisasi signatures in manufacturing is governed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Digital Manufacturing Certificate (DMC).
Financial services. The U.S. financial sector uses digital signatures for contracts, paperless banking, loan processing, insurance documentation, mortgages and more. This heavily regulated sector uses digital signatures with careful attention to the regulations and guidance put forth by the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (E-Sign Act), state Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (UETA) regulations, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) and the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC).
Cryptocurrencies. Komputerisasi signatures are also used in bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies to authenticate the blockchain. They are also used to manage transaction data associated with cryptocurrency and as a way for users to show ownership of currency or their participation in a transaction.
Why use PKI or PGP with digital signatures?
Komputerisasi signatures use the PKI standard and the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) encryption program because both reduce potential security issues that come with transmitting public keys. They validate that the sender\’s public key belongs to that individual and verify the sender\’s identity.

PKI is a framework for services that generate, distribute, control and account for public key certificates. PGP is a variation of the PKI standard that uses symmetric key and public key cryptography, but it differs in how it binds public keys to user identities. PKI uses CAs to validate and bind a user identity with a komputerisasi certificate, whereas PGP uses a laman of trust. Users of PGP choose who they trust and which identities get vetted. PKI users defer to trusted CAs.

The effectiveness of a digital signature\’s security is dependent on the strength of the private key security. Without PKI or PGP, it\’s impossible to prove someone\’s identity or revoke a compromised key, and it\’s easier for malicious actors to impersonate people.

What\’s the difference between a digital signature and an electronic signature?
Though the two terms sound similar, komputerisasi signatures are different from electronic signatures. Digital signature is a technical term, defining the result of a cryptographic process or mathematical algorithm that can be used to authenticate a sequence of data. The term electronic signature — or e-signature — is a sah term that is defined legislatively.

For example, in the United States, the E-Sign Act, passed in 2000, defined e-signature as meaning \”an electronic sound, symbol or process, attached to or logically associated with a contract or other record and executed or adopted by a person with the intent to sign the record.\”

E-signatures are also defined in the Electronic Signatures Directive, which the European Union (EU) passed in 1999 and repealed in 2016. It regarded them as equivalent to physical signatures. This act was replaced with eIDAS (electronic identification authentication and trust services), which regulates e-signatures and transactions, and the embedding processes that ensure the safe conduct of online business.

This means that a komputerisasi signature — which can be expressed digitally in electronic form and associated with the representation of a record — can be a type of e-signature. More generally, though, an e-signature can be as simple as the signer\’s name being entered on a form on a webpage.

To be considered valid, e-signature schemes must include three things:

a way to verify the identity of the entity signing it;
a way to verify the signing entity intended to affirm the document being signed; and
a way to verify that the e-signature is associated with the signed document.
A komputerisasi signature can, on its own, fulfill these requirements to serve as an e-signature:

the public key of the digital signature is linked to the signing entity\’s electronic identification;
the komputerisasi signature can only be affixed by the holder of the public key\’s associated private key, which implies the entity intends to use it for the signature; and
the komputerisasi signature will only authenticate if the signed data, i.e., document or representation of a document, is unchanged — if a document is altered after being signed, the digital signature will fail to authenticate.
While authenticated komputerisasi signatures provide cryptographic proof a document was signed by the stated entity and the document has not been altered, not all e-signatures provide the same guarantees.

komputerisasi signature vs. electronic signature
Learn how digital signatures and electronic signatures compare.
Digital signature tools and vendors
Digital signature tools and services are commonly used in contract-heavy industries. For example, when pekerja paruh waktu writers sign a contract, they can agree to word count and payment, using Adobe Sign to put their e-signature on the document.

Komputerisasi and e-signature service providers include the following:

< a href= 'https://enkripa.id/tanda-tangan-elektronik/'>tanda tangan elekronik di Aceh

Adobe Sign is designed to provide secure, legal e-signatures across all device types.
DocuSign standards-based services ensure e-signatures are compliant with existing regulations. Its services include Express Signature for basic global transactions and the EU Qualified Signature, which complies with EU standards.
GlobalSign provides a host of management, integration and automation tools to implement PKI across enterprise environments.
SignEasy offers an e-signing service of the same name to businesses and individuals, as well as providing application programming interfaces (APIs) for developers.
SignNow, which is part of the airSlate business cloud, provides an easy-to-use Portable Document (PDF) signing tool for businesses.
Vasco provides its eSignLive e-signature product as a cloud service and on premises.

Tanda Tangan Elektronik di Nusa Tenggara Timur

tanda tangan Digital can provide evidence of origin, identity and status of electronic documents, transactions or elektronik messages. Signers can also use them to acknowledge informed consent.

In many countries, including the United States, digital signatures are considered legally binding in the same way as traditional handwritten document signatures.

How do digital signatures work?
Komputerisasi signatures are based on public key cryptography, also known as asymmetric cryptography. Using a public key algorithm, such as RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman), two keys are generated, creating a mathematically linked pair of keys, one private and one public.

Digital signatures work through public key cryptography\’s two mutually authenticating cryptographic keys. The individual who creates the digital signature uses a private key to encrypt signature-related data, while the only way to decrypt that data is with the signer\’s public key.

If the recipient can\’t open the document with the signer\’s public key, that\’s a sign there\’s a masalah with the document or the signature. This is how digital signatures are authenticated.

Digital signature technology requires all parties trust that the individual creating the signature has kept the private key secret. If someone else has access to the private signing key, that party could create fraudulent digital signatures in the name of the private key holder.

What are the benefits of digital signatures?
Security is the main benefit of komputerisasi signatures. Security capabilities embedded in digital signatures ensure a document is not altered and signatures are legitimate. Security features and methods used in komputerisasi signatures include the following:

Personal identification numbers (PINs), passwords and codes. Used to authenticate and verify a signer\’s identity and approve their signature. Elektronik, nama pengguna and kata kunci are the most common methods used.
Asymmetric cryptography. Employs a public key algorithm that includes private and public key encryption and authentication.
Ceksum . Rangkaian panjang huruf dan angka yang mewakili jumlah digit yang benar dalam sepotong data komputerisasi, yang dapat diwujudkan perbandingan untuk mendeteksi kesalahan atau perubahan. Sebuah checksum bertindak sebagai sidik jari data.
Pemeriksaan redundansi siklik ( CRC ). Kode pendeteksi kesalahan dan fitur verifikasi yang dipakai dalam jaringan komputerisasi dan perangkat penyimpanan untuk mendeteksi perubahan pada data mentah.
Validasi otoritas akta ( CA ). CA menerbitkan pertanda tangan komputerisasi dan bertindak sebagai pihak ketiga tepercaya dengan menerima, mengautentikasi, menerbitkan, dan memelihara akta komputerisasi . Pemakaian CA membantu menghindari pembuatan sertifikat digital palsu.
Validasi penyedia layanan kepercayaan (TSP). TSP merupakan orang atau badan hukum yang melaksanakan validasi petunjuk tangan digital atas nama perusahaan dan menawarkan laporan validasi pedoman tangan.
Manfaat lain menggunakan pedoman tangan digital yaitu sebagai berikut:

Stempel waktu. Dengan memberikan data dan waktu tanda tangan digital, timestamping bermanfaat dikala waktunya sangat penting, seperti untuk perdagangan saham, penerbitan karcis lotere, dan pengerjaan tata tertib.
Diterima secara global dan layak dengan hukum. Standar infrastruktur kunci publik ( PKI ) mempertimbangkan kunci yang dijadikan oleh vendor dihasilkan dan disimpan dengan aman. Karena standar internasional, semakin banyak negara yang menerima tanda tangan digital sebagai sesuatu yang mengikat secara aturan.
Penghematan waktu. Pertanda tangan komputerisasi menyederhanakan progres penandatanganan, penyimpanan, dan pertukaran dokumen lahiriah yang memakan waktu, memungkinkan bisnis mengakses dan menandatangani dokumen dengan kencang.
Penghematan biaya. Organisasi bisa menjadi tanpa kertas dan menghemat uang yang sebelumnya dihabiskan untuk sumber kekuatan fisik dan waktu, personel, dan ruang kantor yang digunakan untuk mengelola dan mengangkutnya.
Imbas lingkungan yang positif. Mengurangi pengaplikasian kertas juga mengurangi limbah jasmani yang diciptakan oleh kertas dan akibat negatif lingkungan dari pengangkutan dokumen kertas.
Ketertelusuran. Pedoman tangan digital menghasilkan jejak audit yang membikin pencatatan internal lebih mudah untuk bisnis. Dengan seluruh sesuatu yang direkam dan disimpan secara digital, ada lebih sedikit kans bagi penandatangan manual atau pemegang catatan untuk membuat kesalahan atau salah menaruhkan sesuatu.
Bagaimana cara membuat pedoman tangan komputerisasi?
Untuk membikin tanda tangan komputerisasi, perangkat lunak penandatanganan, seperti program surel, diterapkan untuk menyediakan hash satu arah dari data elektronik yang akan ditandatangani.

Hash yakni string huruf dan angka dengan panjang tetap yang diwujudkan oleh suatu algoritma. Cara pribadi pembuat petunjuk tangan digital kemudian diaplikasikan untuk mengenkripsi hash. Hash terenkripsi — bersama dengan info lain, seperti algoritma hashing — ialah pedoman tangan komputerisasi.

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The reason for encrypting the hash instead of the entire message or document is a hash function can convert an arbitrary input into a fixed-length value, which is usually much shorter. This saves time as hashing is much faster than signing.

The value of a hash is unique to the hashed data. Any change in the data, even a change in a single character, will result in a different value. This attribute enables others to use the signer\’s public key to decrypt the hash to validate the integrity of the data.

If the decrypted hash matches a second computed hash of the same data, it proves that the data hasn\’t changed since it was signed. If the two hashes don\’t match, the data has either been tampered with in some way and is compromised or the signature was created with a private key that doesn\’t correspond to the public key presented by the signer — an issue with authentication.

Komputerisasi kerja tanda tangan komputerisasi
A person creates a digital signature using a private key to encrypt the signature. At the same time, hash data is created and encrypted. The recipient uses the signer\’s public key to decrypt the signature.
A komputerisasi signature can be used with any kind of message, whether it is encrypted or not, simply so the receiver can be sure of the sender\’s identity and the message arrived intact. Komputerisasi signatures make it difficult for the signer to deny having signed something as the komputerisasi signature is unique to both the document and the signer and it binds them together. This property is called nonrepudiation.

Komputerisasi signatures are not to be confused with komputerisasi certificates. A komputerisasi certificate is an electronic document that contains the komputerisasi signature of the issuing CA. It binds together a public key with an identity and can be used to verify that a public key belongs to a particular person or entity.

Most modern e-mail programs support the use of komputerisasi signatures and komputerisasi certificates, making it easy to sign any outgoing emails and validate digitally signed incoming messages. Komputerisasi signatures are also used extensively to provide proof of authenticity, data integrity and nonrepudiation of communications and transactions conducted over the internet.

Classes and types of digital signatures
There are three different classes of digital signature certificates (DSCs):

Class 1. Cannot be used for sah business documents as they are validated based only on an e-mail ID and nama pengguna. Class 1 signatures provide a basic tahapan of security and are used in environments with a low risk of data compromise.
Class 2. Often used for electronic filing (e-filing) of tax documents, including income tax returns and goods and services tax (GST) returns. Class 2 digital signatures authenticate a signer\’s identity against a pre-verified database. Class 2 komputerisasi signatures are used in environments where the risks and consequences of data compromise are moderate.
Class 3. The highest tingkatan of komputerisasi signatures, Class 3 signatures require a person or organization to present in front of a certifying authority to prove their identity before signing. Class 3 digital signatures are used for e-auctions, e-tendering, e-ticketing, court filings and in other environments where threats to data or the consequences of a security failure are high.
Uses for digital signatures
Industries use komputerisasi signature technology to streamline processes and improve document integrity. Industries that use komputerisasi signatures include the following:

Government. The U.S. Government Publishing Office (GPO) publishes electronic versions of budgets, public and private laws, and congressional bills with komputerisasi signatures. Komputerisasi signatures are used by governments worldwide for a variety of reasons, including processing tax returns, verifying business-to-government (B2G) transactions, ratifying laws and managing contracts. Most government entities must adhere to strict laws, regulations and standards when using komputerisasi signatures. Many governments and corporations also use smart cards to ID their citizens and employees. These are physical cards endowed with a komputerisasi signature that can be used to give the cardholder access to an institution\’s systems or physical buildings.
Healthcare. Komputerisasi signatures are used in the healthcare industry to improve the efficiency of treatment and administrative processes, to strengthen data security, for e-prescribing and hospital admissions. The use of komputerisasi signatures in healthcare must comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996.
Manufacturing. Manufacturing companies use digital signatures to speed up processes, including product design, quality assurance (QA), manufacturing enhancements, marketing and sales. The use of digital signatures in manufacturing is governed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Digital Manufacturing Certificate (DMC).
Financial services. The U.S. financial sector uses komputerisasi signatures for contracts, paperless banking, loan processing, insurance documentation, mortgages and more. This heavily regulated sector uses digital signatures with careful attention to the regulations and guidance put forth by the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (E-Sign Act), state Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (UETA) regulations, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) and the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC).
Cryptocurrencies. Komputerisasi signatures are also used in bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies to authenticate the blockchain. They are also used to manage transaction data associated with cryptocurrency and as a way for users to show ownership of currency or their participation in a transaction.
Why use PKI or PGP with komputerisasi signatures?
Digital signatures use the PKI standard and the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) encryption program because both reduce potential security issues that come with transmitting public keys. They validate that the sender\’s public key belongs to that individual and verify the sender\’s identity.

PKI is a framework for services that generate, distribute, control and account for public key certificates. PGP is a variation of the PKI standard that uses symmetric key and public key cryptography, but it differs in how it binds public keys to user identities. PKI uses CAs to validate and bind a user identity with a digital certificate, whereas PGP uses a situs of trust. Users of PGP choose who they trust and which identities get vetted. PKI users defer to trusted CAs.

The effectiveness of a digital signature\’s security is dependent on the strength of the private key security. Without PKI or PGP, it\’s impossible to prove someone\’s identity or revoke a compromised key, and it\’s easier for malicious actors to impersonate people.

What\’s the difference between a komputerisasi signature and an electronic signature?
Though the two terms sound similar, digital signatures are different from electronic signatures. Digital signature is a technical term, defining the result of a cryptographic process or mathematical algorithm that can be used to authenticate a sequence of data. The term electronic signature — or e-signature — is a sah term that is defined legislatively.

For example, in the United States, the E-Sign Act, passed in 2000, defined e-signature as meaning \”an electronic sound, symbol or process, attached to or logically associated with a contract or other record and executed or adopted by a person with the intent to sign the record.\”

E-signatures are also defined in the Electronic Signatures Directive, which the European Union (EU) passed in 1999 and repealed in 2016. It regarded them as equivalent to physical signatures. This act was replaced with eIDAS (electronic identification authentication and trust services), which regulates e-signatures and transactions, and the embedding processes that ensure the safe conduct of online business.

This means that a komputerisasi signature — which can be expressed digitally in electronic form and associated with the representation of a record — can be a type of e-signature. More generally, though, an e-signature can be as simple as the signer\’s name being entered on a form on a webpage.

To be considered valid, e-signature schemes must include three things:

a way to verify the identity of the entity signing it;
a way to verify the signing entity intended to affirm the document being signed; and
a way to verify that the e-signature is associated with the signed document.
A komputerisasi signature can, on its own, fulfill these requirements to serve as an e-signature:

the public key of the digital signature is linked to the signing entity\’s electronic identification;
the komputerisasi signature can only be affixed by the holder of the public key\’s associated private key, which implies the entity intends to use it for the signature; and
the digital signature will only authenticate if the signed data, i.e., document or representation of a document, is unchanged — if a document is altered after being signed, the digital signature will fail to authenticate.
While authenticated digital signatures provide cryptographic proof a document was signed by the stated entity and the document has not been altered, not all e-signatures provide the same guarantees.

digital signature vs. electronic signature
Learn how digital signatures and electronic signatures compare.
Komputerisasi signature tools and vendors
Digital signature tools and services are commonly used in contract-heavy industries. For example, when freelance writers sign a contract, they can agree to word count and payment, using Adobe Sign to put their e-signature on the document.

Komputerisasi and e-signature service providers include the following:

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Adobe Sign is designed to provide secure, sah e-signatures across all device types.
DocuSign standards-based services ensure e-signatures are compliant with existing regulations. Its services include Express Signature for basic global transactions and the EU Qualified Signature, which complies with EU standards.
GlobalSign provides a host of management, integration and automation tools to implement PKI across enterprise environments.
SignEasy offers an e-signing service of the same name to businesses and individuals, as well as providing application programming interfaces (APIs) for developers.
SignNow, which is part of the airSlate business cloud, provides an easy-to-use Portable Document (PDF) signing tool for businesses.
Vasco provides its eSignLive e-signature product as a cloud service and on premises.

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tanda tangan Digital can provide evidence of origin, identity and status of electronic documents, transactions or elektronik messages. Signers can also use them to acknowledge informed consent.

In many countries, including the United States, komputerisasi signatures are considered legally binding in the same way as traditional handwritten document signatures.

How do komputerisasi signatures work?
Digital signatures are based on public key cryptography, also known as asymmetric cryptography. Using a public key algorithm, such as RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman), two keys are generated, creating a mathematically linked pair of keys, one private and one public.

Digital signatures work through public key cryptography\’s two mutually authenticating cryptographic keys. The individual who creates the komputerisasi signature uses a private key to encrypt signature-related data, while the only way to decrypt that data is with the signer\’s public key.

If the recipient can\’t open the document with the signer\’s public key, that\’s a sign there\’s a masalah with the document or the signature. This is how komputerisasi signatures are authenticated.

Komputerisasi signature technology requires all parties trust that the individual creating the signature has kept the private key secret. If someone else has access to the private signing key, that party could create fraudulent digital signatures in the name of the private key holder.

What are the benefits of digital signatures?
Security is the main benefit of digital signatures. Security capabilities embedded in digital signatures ensure a document is not altered and signatures are legitimate. Security features and methods used in komputerisasi signatures include the following:

Personal identification numbers (PINs), passwords and codes. Used to authenticate and verify a signer\’s identity and approve their signature. E-mail, username and kata sandi are the most common methods used.
Asymmetric cryptography. Employs a public key algorithm that includes private and public key encryption and authentication.
Ceksum . Rangkaian panjang huruf dan angka yang mewakili jumlah digit yang benar dalam sepotong data digital, yang dapat dijadikan perbandingan untuk mendeteksi kekeliruan atau perubahan. Sebuah checksum bertingkah sebagai sidik jari data.
Pemeriksaan redundansi siklik ( CRC ). Kode pendeteksi kesalahan dan fitur verifikasi yang digunakan dalam jaringan digital dan perangkat penyimpanan untuk mendeteksi perubahan pada data mentah.
Validasi otoritas sertifikat ( CA ). CA menerbitkan pertanda tangan komputerisasi dan bertingkah sebagai pihak ketiga tepercaya dengan mendapatkan, mengautentikasi, menerbitkan, dan memelihara akta komputerisasi . Pemakaian CA menolong menghindari pembuatan sertifikat digital palsu.
Validasi penyedia layanan kepercayaan (TSP). TSP yaitu orang atau badan regulasi yang mengerjakan validasi pertanda tangan komputerisasi atas nama perusahaan dan menawarkan laporan validasi pedoman tangan.
Manfaat lain menggunakan pertanda tangan digital adalah sebagai berikut:

Stempel waktu. Dengan memberikan data dan waktu petunjuk tangan komputerisasi, timestamping berkhasiat saat waktunya amat penting, seperti untuk perdagangan saham, penerbitan tiket lotere, dan proses peraturan.
Diterima secara global dan sesuai dengan aturan. Standar infrastruktur kunci publik ( PKI ) memutuskan kunci yang dihasilkan oleh vendor diwujudkan dan disimpan dengan aman. Karena standar internasional, semakin banyak negara yang menerima petunjuk tangan komputerisasi sebagai sesuatu yang mengikat secara regulasi.
Penghematan waktu. Pertanda tangan digital menyederhanakan pelaksanaan penandatanganan, penyimpanan, dan pertukaran dokumen lahiriah yang memakan waktu, memungkinkan bisnis mengakses dan menandatangani dokumen dengan kencang.
Penghematan biaya. Organisasi bisa menjadi tanpa kertas dan menghemat uang yang sebelumnya dihabiskan untuk sumber daya fisik dan waktu, personel, dan ruang kantor yang dipakai untuk mengelola dan mengangkutnya.
Imbas lingkungan yang positif. Mengurangi penggunaan kertas juga mengurangi limbah jasmani yang dijadikan oleh kertas dan imbas negatif lingkungan dari pengangkutan dokumen kertas.
Ketertelusuran. Pedoman tangan digital mewujudkan jejak audit yang membuat pencatatan internal lebih gampang untuk bisnis. Dengan segala sesuatu yang direkam dan disimpan secara digital, ada lebih sedikit kesempatan bagi penandatangan manual atau pemegang catatan untuk membikin kesalahan atau salah menaruhkan sesuatu.
Bagaimana metode membikin pertanda tangan komputerisasi?
Untuk membikin petunjuk tangan digital, perangkat lunak penandatanganan, seperti program surat elektronik, dipakai untuk menyediakan hash satu arah dari data elektronik yang akan ditandatangani.

Hash adalah string huruf dan angka dengan panjang tetap yang dijadikan oleh suatu algoritma. Metode pribadi pembuat tanda tangan digital kemudian diaplikasikan untuk mengenkripsi hash. Hash terenkripsi — bersama dengan berita lain, seperti algoritma hashing — ialah petunjuk tangan digital.

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The reason for encrypting the hash instead of the entire message or document is a hash function can convert an arbitrary input into a fixed-length value, which is usually much shorter. This saves time as hashing is much faster than signing.

The value of a hash is unique to the hashed data. Any change in the data, even a change in a single character, will result in a different value. This attribute enables others to use the signer\’s public key to decrypt the hash to validate the integrity of the data.

If the decrypted hash matches a second computed hash of the same data, it proves that the data hasn\’t changed since it was signed. If the two hashes don\’t match, the data has either been tampered with in some way and is compromised or the signature was created with a private key that doesn\’t correspond to the public key presented by the signer — an issue with authentication.

Digital kerja tanda tangan komputerisasi
A person creates a digital signature using a private key to encrypt the signature. At the same time, hash data is created and encrypted. The recipient uses the signer\’s public key to decrypt the signature.
A komputerisasi signature can be used with any kind of message, whether it is encrypted or not, simply so the receiver can be sure of the sender\’s identity and the message arrived intact. Digital signatures make it difficult for the signer to deny having signed something as the komputerisasi signature is unique to both the document and the signer and it binds them together. This property is called nonrepudiation.

Digital signatures are not to be confused with digital certificates. A digital certificate is an electronic document that contains the digital signature of the issuing CA. It binds together a public key with an identity and can be used to verify that a public key belongs to a particular person or entity.

Most modern email programs support the use of digital signatures and komputerisasi certificates, making it easy to sign any outgoing emails and validate digitally signed incoming messages. Komputerisasi signatures are also used extensively to provide proof of authenticity, data integrity and nonrepudiation of communications and transactions conducted over the dunia online.

Classes and types of komputerisasi signatures
There are three different classes of digital signature certificates (DSCs):

Class 1. Cannot be used for legal business documents as they are validated based only on an email ID and username. Class 1 signatures provide a basic tahapan of security and are used in environments with a low risk of data compromise.
Class 2. Often used for electronic filing (e-filing) of tax documents, including income tax returns and goods and services tax (GST) returns. Class 2 digital signatures authenticate a signer\’s identity against a pre-verified database. Class 2 komputerisasi signatures are used in environments where the risks and consequences of data compromise are moderate.
Class 3. The highest tingkatan of komputerisasi signatures, Class 3 signatures require a person or organization to present in front of a certifying authority to prove their identity before signing. Class 3 komputerisasi signatures are used for e-auctions, e-tendering, e-ticketing, court filings and in other environments where threats to data or the consequences of a security failure are high.
Uses for komputerisasi signatures
Industries use digital signature technology to streamline processes and improve document integrity. Industries that use komputerisasi signatures include the following:

Government. The U.S. Government Publishing Office (GPO) publishes electronic versions of budgets, public and private laws, and congressional bills with komputerisasi signatures. Digital signatures are used by governments worldwide for a variety of reasons, including processing tax returns, verifying business-to-government (B2G) transactions, ratifying laws and managing contracts. Most government entities must adhere to strict laws, regulations and standards when using komputerisasi signatures. Many governments and corporations also use smart cards to ID their citizens and employees. These are physical cards endowed with a digital signature that can be used to give the cardholder access to an institution\’s systems or physical buildings.
Healthcare. Komputerisasi signatures are used in the healthcare industry to improve the efficiency of treatment and administrative processes, to strengthen data security, for e-prescribing and hospital admissions. The use of komputerisasi signatures in healthcare must comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996.
Manufacturing. Manufacturing companies use digital signatures to speed up processes, including product design, quality assurance (QA), manufacturing enhancements, marketing and sales. The use of digital signatures in manufacturing is governed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Digital Manufacturing Certificate (DMC).
Financial services. The U.S. financial sector uses digital signatures for contracts, paperless banking, loan processing, insurance documentation, mortgages and more. This heavily regulated sector uses komputerisasi signatures with careful attention to the regulations and guidance put forth by the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (E-Sign Act), state Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (UETA) regulations, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) and the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC).
Cryptocurrencies. Komputerisasi signatures are also used in bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies to authenticate the blockchain. They are also used to manage transaction data associated with cryptocurrency and as a way for users to show ownership of currency or their participation in a transaction.
Why use PKI or PGP with digital signatures?
Digital signatures use the PKI standard and the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) encryption program because both reduce potential security issues that come with transmitting public keys. They validate that the sender\’s public key belongs to that individual and verify the sender\’s identity.

PKI is a framework for services that generate, distribute, control and account for public key certificates. PGP is a variation of the PKI standard that uses symmetric key and public key cryptography, but it differs in how it binds public keys to user identities. PKI uses CAs to validate and bind a user identity with a digital certificate, whereas PGP uses a website of trust. Users of PGP choose who they trust and which identities get vetted. PKI users defer to trusted CAs.

The effectiveness of a komputerisasi signature\’s security is dependent on the strength of the private key security. Without PKI or PGP, it\’s impossible to prove someone\’s identity or revoke a compromised key, and it\’s easier for malicious actors to impersonate people.

What\’s the difference between a digital signature and an electronic signature?
Though the two terms sound similar, komputerisasi signatures are different from electronic signatures. Digital signature is a technical term, defining the result of a cryptographic process or mathematical algorithm that can be used to authenticate a sequence of data. The term electronic signature — or e-signature — is a sah term that is defined legislatively.

For example, in the United States, the E-Sign Act, passed in 2000, defined e-signature as meaning \”an electronic sound, symbol or process, attached to or logically associated with a contract or other record and executed or adopted by a person with the intent to sign the record.\”

E-signatures are also defined in the Electronic Signatures Directive, which the European Union (EU) passed in 1999 and repealed in 2016. It regarded them as equivalent to physical signatures. This act was replaced with eIDAS (electronic identification authentication and trust services), which regulates e-signatures and transactions, and the embedding processes that ensure the safe conduct of online business.

This means that a komputerisasi signature — which can be expressed digitally in electronic form and associated with the representation of a record — can be a type of e-signature. More generally, though, an e-signature can be as simple as the signer\’s name being entered on a form on a webpage.

To be considered valid, e-signature schemes must include three things:

a way to verify the identity of the entity signing it;
a way to verify the signing entity intended to affirm the document being signed; and
a way to verify that the e-signature is associated with the signed document.
A komputerisasi signature can, on its own, fulfill these requirements to serve as an e-signature:

the public key of the digital signature is linked to the signing entity\’s electronic identification;
the komputerisasi signature can only be affixed by the holder of the public key\’s associated private key, which implies the entity intends to use it for the signature; and
the komputerisasi signature will only authenticate if the signed data, i.e., document or representation of a document, is unchanged — if a document is altered after being signed, the komputerisasi signature will fail to authenticate.
While authenticated komputerisasi signatures provide cryptographic proof a document was signed by the stated entity and the document has not been altered, not all e-signatures provide the same guarantees.

komputerisasi signature vs. electronic signature
Learn how komputerisasi signatures and electronic signatures compare.
Digital signature tools and vendors
Digital signature tools and services are commonly used in contract-heavy industries. For example, when pekerja paruh waktu writers sign a contract, they can agree to word count and payment, using Adobe Sign to put their e-signature on the document.

Digital and e-signature service providers include the following:

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Adobe Sign is designed to provide secure, resmi e-signatures across all device types.
DocuSign standards-based services ensure e-signatures are compliant with existing regulations. Its services include Express Signature for basic global transactions and the EU Qualified Signature, which complies with EU standards.
GlobalSign provides a host of management, integration and automation tools to implement PKI across enterprise environments.
SignEasy offers an e-signing service of the same name to businesses and individuals, as well as providing application programming interfaces (APIs) for developers.
SignNow, which is part of the airSlate business cloud, provides an easy-to-use Portable Document (PDF) signing tool for businesses.
Vasco provides its eSignLive e-signature product as a cloud service and on premises.